The Axelrod family of Dunilovitz
Rabbi Yitzhak was born c 1845. He was the rabbi of Dunilovitz c 1870.
In the book Yahadut Lita volume 3 page 112-113 there is a
story about his two revolutionary daughters.
Axelrod Lyuba was born in 1868 in Dunilovitz . Already at age 15 she left
her family in Dunilovitz to Vilna. There she joined under ground organizations
and moved to Poltachova, Kharkov and Malitopol in the Ukraine.
After the assassination of the Russian czar Alexander in 1889, she moved
with her friend; Ch. Rapoport, first to Paris and then to Switzerland.
Studied in the university of Bern were she received a Ph.D. (Philosophy.
) She was politically involved with the underground S.D and later S.R.
After the revolt of 1905 she returned to Russia and wrote for some socialist
newspapers. She was a member of the professional union in St. Petersburg.
She lectured in centers for unionized laborers. In 1915 she was punished
and sent to Siberia together with all the members of the Russian paper
In 1917 she was an editing member of the Russian papers Unity.
After the first revelation in 1917 she was a member of the central S.D
and the temporary parliament
After the Bolshevik revolution of October (1917), she retired from political
She lived in Tambov 1918- 1920 and in 1921 headed a philosophy department
in the institution of Red professorship.
Her bibliography (all in Russian);
Philosophical dissertation 1906
In opposition to Idealism 1922
Criticism of the capitalist society and historical materialism
L. Tolstoy and the S. D.
Axelrod Ida was born in Dunilovitz in 1870. She followed her sister and
already at age 17 was a member of a revolutionary cell and imprisoned.
In 1893 she joined her sister in Switzerland She studied in the university
and received a pH. D. in Philosophy.
She was a member of the movement free the laborers and Eeiskara.
In 1903 She joined the Bolsheviks. After some time she transferred
together with Georgi Plekhanov
1856 1918 the Mensheviks. During the First World War she was a
member of the group that signed the pamphlet To the nation
of workers in Russia (1915).
Took part in the collection by Plekhanov War. http://www.nlr.ru:8101/eng/nlr/housePleh/p1.htm
Returned to Russia before the October, 1917 overthrow. Wrote revues of
(I do not know if Axelrod was the original name of the sisters; on the
Internet I found information about another Axelrod who might be somehow
Pavel Axelrod was born in Chernigov, Russia, in 1850. Deeply influenced
by the writings of Mikhail Bakunin, he established a socialist group of
students in Kiev. He also contributed to the radical journals, Worker
In 1877 he joined the Land and Liberty. Three years later the group split
into two factions. The majority of members, who favoured a policy of terrorism,
established the People's Will. Axelrod and George Plekhanov established
the Black Repartition group that rejected terrorism and supported a socialist
propaganda campaign among workers and peasants.
Axelrod went with George Plekhanov to live in Switzerland and in 1883
they established the Liberation of Labour group.
In March, 1898, the various Marxist groups in Russia met in Minsk and
decided to form the Social Democratic Labour Party (SDLP). The party was
banned in Russia so most of its leaders were forced to live in exile.
Axelrod became co-editor of a journal called Iskra. It was printed in
several European cities and then smuggled into Russia by a network of
At the Second Congress of the Social Democratic Labour Party in London
in 1903, there was a dispute between Vladimir Lenin and Julius Martov,
two of SDLP's leaders. Lenin argued for a small party of professional
revolutionaries with a large fringe of non-party sympathizers and supporters.
Martov disagreed believing it was better to have a large party of activists.
Julius Martov based his ideas on the socialist parties that existed in
other European countries such as the British Labour Party. Lenin argued
that the situation was different in Russia as it was illegal to form socialist
political parties under the Tsar's autocratic government. At the end of
the debate Martov won the vote 28-23 . Vladimir Lenin was unwilling to
accept the result and formed a faction known as the Bolsheviks. Those
who remained loyal to Martov became known as Mensheviks.
Along with Julius Martov, Pavel Axelrod, Leon Trotsky, Irakli Tsereteli,
Moisei Uritsky, Noi Zhordania and Fedor Dan, Axelrod joined the Mensheviks.
However, a large number of important figures in the Social Democratic
Labour Party, including Gregory Zinoviev, Anatoli Lunacharsky, Joseph
Stalin, Mikhail Lashevich, Nadezhda Krupskaya, Mikhail Frunze, Alexei
Rykov, Yakov Sverdlov, Lev Kamenev, Maxim Litvinov, Vladimir Antonov,
Felix Dzerzhinsky, Gregory Ordzhonikidze and Alexander Bogdanov joined
An opponent of the First World War, Axelrod worked with Julius Martov,
Vladimir Antonov and Leon Trotsky, to produce the internationalist newspaper,
After the February Revolution Axelrod returned to Russia but was too late
to stop some Mensheviks joining the Provisional Government. He strongly
criticized those Mensheviks such as Irakli Tsereteli and Fedor Dan who
now supported the war effort. However at a conference held on 18th June,
1917, he failed to gain the support of the delegates for a policy of immediate
peace negotiations with the Central Powers.
After the October Revolution, which Axelrod called a "historical
crime without parallel in modern history", he toured the world rallying
socialist opposition to the Bolsheviks. Pavel Axelrod died in 1928.