Tzila is the daughter of Emanuel Wilbushevitz and Lili (nee Werman)
and the younger sister of Alexandra, who died in 1982. Her father, who
was born in Jaffa in 1893, had a Ph.D in political economy from the
University of Zurich, but preferred selling hydraulic pumps on Kings
Road (today's Ha'atzma'ut Street) in Haifa. Tzila Wilbushevitz (maiden
name), , 77, Paletz (from her marriage to Dov-Ber, who died in 1970)
Tzila' grandfather: Gedalyahu Wilbushevitz, an ardent Zionist, was
born in 1865 on an estate near Grodno to a wealthy family of lumber
merchants. He earned his engineering diploma from Charlottenburg
University in Berlin (a "very highly regarded" institution). The
family immigrated to Palestine (for the first time) in 1892.
Gedalyahu's wife, Tzila (nee Bordo), unimpressed by the country,
hustled the family back to Russia. But the yearning for Zion grew, and
in 1903 the family returned, only to have Gedalyahu go bankrupt with a
pump factory ("the first Jewish factory") but thrive as a city
engineer. Still, his granddaughter Tzila thinks the most fascinating
member of the family was Moshe.
Moshe Wilbushevitz: Grandfather Gedalyahu's younger brother, he
invented Lehem Hai sprouted-wheat bread and wrote a book called "Man
Does Not Live by Bread Alone."
Grandfather' sister; Manya Wilbushevitz: Tzila remembers her as a
"warm-hearted woman" with short hair in a black pinafore dress over a
white blouse, who used to come to visit and chat a bit in German.
Manya Shochat (Mania Shohat)
Manya Shochat (Born near Grodno in 1880*; Died 1961) was the "mother"
of the Kibbutz movement and collective settlement. She was born as
Manya Wilbushewitch in Belorussia to middle-class Russian Jewish
parents. As a young adult, she went to work in her brother's factory
in Minsk to learn about working class conditions. She was imprisoned
because of her contacts with revolutionaries in 1899. There she was
indoctrinated by Zubatov, the head of the Tsarist Secret Police in
Moscow. Zubatov conceived a plan that fit with Shochat's ideological
notions, through which workers would form "tame" organizations that
would work for reform rather than for overthrow of the government. She
was persuaded that this would also help achieve rights for Jews. She
founded the Jewish Independent Labor Party. The party was successful
in leading strikes because the secret police supported it, but was
loathed by the Bund and other Jewish socialist groups. The party
collapsed in 1903 following the Kishinev pogrom. At a loss following
the collapse of her ideas, she accepted an invitation from her brother
Nachum, who was the founder of the Shemen soap factory, to visit the
land of Israel in 1904. Anticipating Arthur Ruppin, she understood
that the model of plantation settlement where Jewish owners employed
Arab workers, which favored by the Baron Rothschild, could never be
the basis for Jewish national life. She concluded that only collective
agricultural settlement could produce Jewish workers and farmers who
would be the basis for building a Jewish homeland. She returned in
1907 to help establish the country's first ideologically based
cooperative at Sejera, which later became the basis of the first
Kibbutz. In 1908, with Israel Shochat, she helped found the Hashomer
guard organization, which evolved into the basis of Jewish
self-defense. She later married Israel Shochat and had two children.
In World War I, the Turks deported the Shochats and others who were
not Turkish citizens to Bursa, in Turkey. They returned in 1919, after
attending the Poalei Tziyon convention in Stockholm. She was active
in the G'dud Ha'avoda. In 1930, Manya Shochat was among the
founders of the League for Arab-Jewish Friendship. With Rahel Yanaait
she traveled to the United States to raise money and organize Aliya.
In 1948 she joined the MAPAM party. * Some sources give her date of
birth as 1879.