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Yitzhak Katznelson and his son Zvi Katznelson
e..Yzhak Katzenelson (Hebrew: ???? ???????, Yiddish: (???? ????(?)???????(???; also transcribed Icchak-Lejb Kacenelson, Jizchak Katzenelson; Yitzhok Katznelson) (1 July 1886 – 1 May 1944) was a Jewishteacher, poet and dramatist. He was born in 1886 in Karelichy near Minsk, and was murdered May 1, 1944 in Auschwitz.
Soon after his birth Katzenelson's family moved to ?ód?, Poland, where he grew up. He worked as a teacher, founding a school, and as a dramatist in both Yiddish and Hebrew, starting a theatre group which toured Poland and Lithuania. Following the German invasion of Poland in 1939 he and his family fled to Warsaw, where they got trapped in the Ghetto. There he ran an underground school for Jewish children. His wife and two of his sons were deported to the Treblinka extermination camp and murdered there.
Katzenelson participated in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising starting on April 18, 1943. To save his life, friends supplied him and his surviving son with forged Honduran passports. They managed to leave the ghetto but later surrendered to the Hotel Polski. He was deported to a detention camp in Vittel, France, where the Nazis held American and British citizens and nationals of other Allied and neutral countries, for possible later prisoner exchange.
In Vittel, Katzenelson wrote Dos lid funem oysgehargetn yidishn folk ("Song of the Murdered Jewish People"). He put the manuscript in bottles and buried them under a tree, from where it was recovered after the war. A copy was sewn into the handle of a suitcase and later taken to Israel.
In late April 1944, Itzhak Katzenelson and his son Zvi were sent on a transport to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where they were murdered on May 1, 1944.
The Ghetto Fighters' House Holocaust and Jewish Resistance Heritage Museum in Israel, is named in his memory. "The Song of the Murdered Jewish People" has been translated into numerous languages and published as an individual volume.
• Vittel Diary (22.v.43 – 16.9.43), Israel: Ghetto Fighters' House, 1964. Translated from the Hebrew by Dr. Myer Cohen; includes biographical notes and appendix of terms and place names.
• Le Chant du peuple juif assassiné, France: Bibliothèque Medem, 2005. Yiddish-French edition, French translation by Batia Baum, introduction by Rachel Ertel.
1. Jump up^ Gilbert, Martin (2002). The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust. Psychology Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-415-28145-4.
• Nine poems by Yitzkhok Katznelson in Yiddish and English at Poetry in Hell
• Itzhak Katzenelson genealogy Geni Family Tree
• excerpt from The Song of the Murdered Jewish People
• I had a dream poem
(25 January 1887 – died 12 August 1944) was one of the intellectual founders of Labor Zionism, instrumental to the establishment of the modern state of Israel, and the editor ofDavar, the first daily newspaper of the workers' movement.
Katznelson was born in Babruysk, Russia, the son of a member of Hovevei Zion. He dreamed of settling in the Jewish homeland from an early age. In Russia, he was a librarian in a Hebrew-Yiddish library and taught Hebrew literature and Jewish history. He made aliyah to Ottoman Palestine in 1909, where he worked in agriculture and took an active role in organizing workers' federations based on the idea of "common work, life and aspirations."
Together with his cousin, Yitzhak Tabenkin, Katznelson was one of the founding fathers of the Israeli workers union, the Histadrut. In this capacity, together with Meir Rothberg of the Kinneret Farm, Katznelson founded in 1916 the consumer co-operative known as Hamashbir with the goal of supplying the Jewish communities of Palestine with food at affordable prices during the terrible shortage years of the First World War. He helped to establish the Clalit Health Services sick fund, a major fixture in Israel's network of socialized medicine. In 1925, together with Moshe Beilinson, Katznelson established the Davar daily newspaper, and became its first editor, a position he held until his death, as well as becoming the founder and first editor-in-chief of the Am Oved publishing house.
Katznelson was well known for his desire for peaceful coexistence between Arabs and Jews in Israel. He was an outspoken opponent of the Peel Commission's partition plan for Palestine. He stated:
I do not wish to see the realization of Zionism in the form of the new Polish state with Arabs in the position of the Jews and the Jews in the position of the Poles, the ruling people. For me this would be the complete perversion of the Zionist ideal... Our generation has been witness to the fact that nations aspiring to freedom who threw off the yoke of subjugation rushed to place this yoke on the shoulders of others. Over the generations in which we were persecuted and exiled and slaughtered, we learned not only the pain of exile and subjugation, but also contempt for tyranny. Was that only a case of sour grapes? Are we now nurturing the dream of slaves who wish to reign?
Katznelson also spoke of Jewish self-hatred, saying:
"Is there another People on Earth so emotionally twisted that they consider everything their nation does despicable and hateful, while every murder, rape, robbery committed by their enemies fill their hearts with admiration and awe?"
Katznelson died of an aneurysm in 1944 and was buried at his request in the cemetery on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, next to Sarah Shmukler.
Memories of Katznelson[\
In her biography, Golda Meir remembers Berl Katznelson as a pivotal figure in the life of the Jewish community in Palestine: "Berl was not at all physically impressive. He was small, his hair was always untidy, his clothes always looked rumpled. But his lovely smile lit up his face, and [he] looked right through you, so that no one who ever talked to Berl forgot him. I think of him as I saw him, hundreds of times, buried in a shabby old armchair in one of the two book-lined rooms in which he lived in the heart of old Tel-Aviv, where everyone came to see him and where he worked (because he hated going to an office). 'Berl would like you to stop by' was like a command that no one disobeyed. Not that he held court or ever gave orders, but nothing was done, no decision of any importance to the Labour movement in particular or the yishuv in general, was taken without Berl's opinion being sought first."
Katznelson is commemorated in many places, in name. Beit Berl near Tzofit, Ohalo (lit. his tent) on Sea of Galilee, and Kibbutz Be'eri (which takes Katznelson's literary name). Many streets throughout Israel are named in his memory. Israeli Postal Service issued a Berl Katzenelson commemorative stamp. 
1. Jump up^ Encyclopedia of Zionism and Israel, Berl Katzenelson, edited by Raphael Patai, New York, 1971
2. Jump up^ Ben Halpern (March 1988). Yitzhak Tabenkin and Berl Katznelson, Books on Israel. Association for Israel Studies, SUNY Press. pp. 17–22.ISBN 978-0-88706-776-1. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
3. Jump up^ "Kinneret Courtyard".
4. Jump up^ "Hamashbi Hamerkazi".
5. Jump up^ Itzhak Galnoor (1995). The partition of Palestine: decision crossroads in the Zionist movement. SUNY Press. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-7914-2193-2. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
6. Jump up^ Cohen, Aharon (1970). Israel and the Arab World. Funk & Wagnalls Co. pp. 260–261. ISBN 978-0-308-70426-8.
7. Jump up^ Zilber, Uzi (25 December 2009). "The Jew Flu: The strange illness of Jewish anti-Semitism". Haaretz. Retrieved 25 December 2009.
8. Jump up^ Tsur, Muki (March 2009). "Sarah Shmukler". Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
9. Jump up^ "My Life, Golda Meir, 1975, pp.98–102
10. Jump up^ Berl Katznelson Jewish Virtual Library
11. Jump up^ Berl Katznelson Famous Portraits on the Stamps of Israel
12. Jump up^ "Berl Katnelson". The complete guide to Israeli postage stamps from 1948 onward. Boeliem.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Berl Katznelson.
• Genealogy of Berl Katznelson from Geni
• Anita Shapira (1984). Berl: the biography of a socialist Zionist, Berl Katznelson, 1887–1944. CUP Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-25618-6. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
1885 – 1975
by Michal Hagati-Chomsky
A thinker and teacher, Rahel Katznelson was one of the early activists in the Labor Movement and Mo’ezet ha-Po’alot in the Yishuv and Israel.
In a letter to Dr. Yehudit Harari of August 28, 1956, Rahel Katznelson summed up her concurrent public activity in three areas: “Cultural activity among members of the Labor Movement; activity—mainly cultural—among women workers; and literary criticism.”
Katznelson was born in Bobruisk, Russia (now Babruysk, Belarus) on October 25, 1885 (15 Heshvan 5646), the second of the six children of Zelda (née Rozovsky) and Nisan Katznelson. The family was prosperous, modern-religious and educated, earning their income as lumber merchants doing business with the southern region of Russia.
Rahel’s intellectual gifts were evident from childhood. After finishing her studies at the local grammar school at the age of twelve, she was sent to study at the gymnasia for girls in Kremenchuk in the Ukraine, where she spent six years. She absorbed culture and Russian literature to the point where she became “drunk on assimilation,” as she described it. In 1903 she graduated with honors, returning home with a gold medal which enabled her to open the doors of any university in Russia, despite being Jewish.
The reunion with her family and with her Jewish environment, coupled with the pogroms against the Jews of Kishinev that same year, led to an awakening and a decision to become acquainted with her own people’s culture before continuing her academic studies. She remained in Bobruisk for four years, studying Hebrew and Bible and becoming acquainted with the new Hebrew literature and with Yiddish popular literature. She joined the Zionist-Socialist Workers’ Movement in her city, taught Jewish women workers who had not received an education, taught Hebrew literacy to youth groups and wrote an essay in Russian on the poetry of Hayyim Nahman Bialik (1873–1934).
She spent 1908 in Berlin, where she attended lectures at the seminary for Jewish studies, learned German and became acquainted with music, art and classic Western literature.
At the end of the year, she returned to Russia and registered to study Russian literature and history at the women’s university in St. Petersburg. At the same time, she registered for Jewish history at the Academy of Jewish Studies founded in the city that year. There she met a fellow student, Shneur Zalman Rubashov (1889–1974, later her husband, Zalman Shazar, third president of Israel), with whom she developed a relationship.
Her academic success strengthened her belief that she was meant to be a writer and literary critic. In St. Petersburg she had the opportunity to study both classical Russian literature and modern Hebrew literature in depth. Comparing the richness of Russian culture in the city with the feeble attempts to create a modern Hebrew culture there, she sadly wrote in her diary: “Have we no more than this?” On the other hand, she realized that as a Jewish woman she would never be able to put her achievements to use as an equal participant in the Russian artistic world. Hence her place was with her own people’s culture, though she felt that it was impossible to create true non-religious Jewish art in the Diaspora.
Once she had reached this conclusion, she saw no point in continuing her studies. In addition, health problems and a (temporary) crisis in her relationship with Zalman Rubashov caused her to interrupt her studies and leave St. Petersburg in 1911. She searched for a place where she could find meaning in life and create freely. Her two close friends, Zalman Rubashov, who had returned from a trip to Palestine, and Berl Katznelson (1887–1944; not a relative), who had emigrated there the year before, tried to persuade her to move there as well. She recalls that as far as she was concerned, the deciding factor was a literary one—a story written by the Erez Israel author Joseph Hayyim Brenner (1881–1921), “From Here and There” (1911). This story, which describes the emotional and material struggles of the pioneer in Erez Israel and Brenner’s own inner conflicts, aroused feelings of personal identification in Katznelson. She felt that this was the place where she herself would find an appropriate atmosphere. She reached the coast of Jaffa on November 7, 1912.
On November 7, 1913, after a difficult year of acclimation and searching, she was engaged to teach Hebrew and history at the women’s agricultural farm at Kinneret founded by Hannah Maisel-Shohat. There she forged ties with the group of worker pioneers, members of the Second Aliyah (1904–1914) whom she saw as “the elect.” In 1918, she wrote of them in her diary: “My realization that we are living the most cultural and complicated lives […] is correct.” In order to be one of the elect she felt that she must also engage in physical labor. Thus, from the end of 1914 to 1919, she worked as a laborer at Tel Adashim and at Kevuzat Kinneret, in Jerusalem and atMikveh Israel.
At the second women workers’ conference, held at Kinneret in 1915, she was elected to the workers’ committee. In the same year she was also elected to the Galilee Workers’ Cultural Committee, where she and her colleagues taught workers on Sabbaths and in the evenings after work. In 1919 Katznelson was active in founding the Zionist Socialist Labor Party (Ahdut ha-Avodah) and was elected to serve full-time on its cultural committee. She left her job at Mikveh Israel and began to occupy herself with the cultural needs of workers throughout the country, providing mobile libraries, classes and lectures for adults and educational frameworks for children.
Though Rahel Katznelson did not distinguish herself in field labor or kitchen work, she was one of the few women of the Second Aliyah whose male colleagues were willing to listen to and learn from, despite their dismissive attitude toward other women colleagues. Such treatment infuriated her, and she felt obligated to do all she could to change it. In 1914 she participated in the founding convention of the women workers’ movement at Merhavyah, remaining active in it from then on and becoming one of its major leaders.
When World War I broke out in 1914, Zalman Rubashov, who was studying at a German university, was arrested in Berlin as an enemy alien, due to his Russian nationality, and forbidden to leave the city until the end of the war. He reached Palestine in 1920 and resumed his relationship with Rahel Katznelson. They were married on April 19, 1920 (Rosh Hodesh Iyyar 5680) in Jerusalem. In the same year he was elected to the central committee of Po’alei Zion in Vienna, where the couple spent the next four years and where their only daughter, Rhoda, was born on February 14, 1921. Rhoda suffered from Down Syndrome and her parents’ concern for her growth and education occupied them all their lives.
In 1924 they returned to Palestine and settled in Tel Aviv. Zalman Rubashov served on the editorial board of the workers’ newspaper, Davar (founded 1925), while Rahel joined the Histadrut’s cultural committee, where she helped develop its educational network, Hebrew-language studies for immigrants and a central library.
In 1928 she began to work at the Mo’ezet ha-Po’alot (Council of Women Workers), where she sought to implement her ideas on promoting working women’s participation in the community life then taking shape in the country. The first pre-requisite for this was, in her opinion, education for women and encouragement of their self-expression. Mo’ezet ha-Po’alot accepted her proposal to publish a book about the life of the working woman, putting her in charge of the project. The collection Divrei Po’alot, edited by Katznelson, appeared in 1930. In it, fifty-seven women of the Second and Third Aliyah (1919–1923) wrote about their lives, creating a work which in the course of about twenty years became an educational-historical document providing the first authentic expression of working women’s lives in pre-state Israel. Translated into four languages—Yiddish, German, Bulgarian and English (as The Plough Woman, 1932, translated by Maurice Samuel)—the book served as educational material in pre-state Israel and the Diaspora. In the same year, Rahel Katznelson joined the secretariat of the Mo’ezet ha-Po’alot.
Following the success of Divrei Po’alot, Rahel Katznelson initiated a regular publication that would reflect the lives of working women and serve them as a platform for self-expression. The women’s monthly Devar ha-Po’elet first appeared in March 1934, with Katznelson as editor, and continued its monthly appearance (from 1976 under the name Na’amat) until the 1990s.
In 1964 Rahel Katznelson described the mission of Devar ha-Po’elet thus: “It is the Jewish woman’s first regular Hebrew platform: to live as workers, mothers, defenders and settlers of the land and draw from them, through listening and love, the faithful expression of many and the creativity of individuals.” This was not a “women’s newspaper” in the conventional sense. The editor and her colleagues on the board were careful to maintain a high level in the material and a variety of subjects, inter alia: women in Palestine and the world, current affairs, literature, culture and art. While the writers were mostly women, the articles were intended for the general public. This created an opening for the recognition, understanding and appreciation of women’s role in society.
Rahel Katznelson did not content herself with the written word. In addition to editing Devar ha-Po’elet, she organized classes and ideological seminars for women, participating in them as teacher and lecturer. It was important for her that women meet not only about practical matters, but also to study and expand their horizons.
She also participated in ideological seminars in the Diaspora: in 1938 she served as a lecturer and board member in a seminar for the Halutz youth movement in Warsaw and after the war, in 1947, she organized a seminar for young Holocaust survivors in Münchberg, Germany.
In addition to her work in the cultural sphere, she was also asked to fill a number of public positions: in 1933 she was active on behalf of Mo’ezet ha-Po’alot in its counterpart in America and Canada, the Pioneer Women. She represented Israel at international conferences for socialist women, was a Histadrut delegate to the Zionist Congress, was elected to the Executive Committee of the World Zionist Organization, was a member of the Histadrut’s Workers’ Executive Committee, and a member of the central committee of Mapai. In the summer of 1947 she appeared together with Rebecca Sieff before the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP), on behalf of the country’s Jewish women. In 1958 she was awarded the Israel Prize for her social and cultural activities on behalf of women.
For more than twenty-five consecutive years Rahel Katznelson edited Devar ha-Po’elet, where she published many of her literary articles. But throughout her life in Israel, she published only four profound, wide-ranging literary essays, some of which serve researchers to this day. She wrote to Dr. Yehudit Harari on the process of writing those essays: “From time to time, I would discover an author with whom I felt a close affinity and would concentrate on him. … In every period, there was one Hebrew author who served me as a kind of spiritual center. … Those essays were a kind of research and required conditions that only rarely prevailed. The demands of work and family left me little time for that kind of writing.”
Her first Hebrew essay, “Nedudei Lashon” (Wanderings of Language), was published in 1918 in the collectionBa-Avodah (At Work). In response, Berl Katznelson wrote to her: “This is the beginning of the living essay in our literature.” She published three more essays: on Uri Nissan-Gnessin (1879–1913) (1927), Micha-Josef Berdyczewski (1865–1921) (1941), and Joseph Hayyim Brenner (1942). In 1946 she published her collected works in Essays and Articles, which was awarded that year’s Brenner Prize. An expanded edition of this book,Al Admat ha-Ivrit (On Hebrew Soil), was published in 1966. Im Pa’amei ha-Dor (In the Steps of the Generation), a two-volume anthology which she edited on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of Devar ha-Po’elet, appeared in 1964. Two additional books were published posthumously: Adam Kemo she-Hu (The Person as She Was, 1989), her personal diaries from 1907 to 1972, and Ha-Hofim ha-Shenayim (The Two Shores, 1999), an exchange of correspondence between herself and Zalman Rubashov-Shazar from 1909 to 1963.
On May 22, 1963, Zalman Shazar was elected third president of the State of Israel. Rahel, now seventy-eight years of age, had new tasks to fulfill, which she did honorably until 1972, when she fell ill and underwent surgery. She never returned to full health or to her home, dying on August 11, 1975 (4 Elul 5735).
Rahel Katznelson came to Erez Israel out of a personal desire for a life of meaningful Jewish creativity. While her education and abilities could have won her entry into the country’s intelligentsia, she chose to join the pioneers of the Second Aliyah, whom she viewed as the true proponents of the Jewish social and cultural “revolution.” She contributed greatly to the country’s emerging cultural life, laying stress on women’s participation within it.
SELECTED WORKS BY RAHEL KATZNELSON
Massot u-Reshimot (Essays and Articles). Tel Aviv: 1944. Literary essays about Jewish and Russian authors and short articles written between 1918 and 1945. Most of them published in Devar ha-Po’elet; Al Admat ha-Ivrit(On Hebrew Soil). Selected Essays. Tel Aviv: 1966; Im Pa’amei ha-Dor (In the Steps of the Generation). Tel Aviv: 1964. A two-volume anthology of selected material from Devar ha-Po’elet, celebrating the journal’s twenty-fifth anniversary.
Divrei Po’alot (translated by Maurice Samuel as The Plough Woman). New York: 1932; Adam Kemo she-Hu(The Person as She Was). Edited by Michal Hagitti. Tel Aviv: 1989.
Personal diaries, letters and articles, 1907–1972. Ha-Hofim ha-Shenayim (The Two Shores). Edited by Michal Hagitti. Jerusalem: 1999.
Correspondence (281 letters) between Rahel Katznelson and Zalman Rubashov-Shazar, 1909–1963, from the time they met in St. Petersburg until his nomination as third president of the State of Israel.
Harari, Yehudit. “Rahel Katznelson.” In A Woman and Mother in Israel. Tel Aviv: 1959, 358–360.
Miron, Dan. “The Conquered Heart.” In Founding Mothers, Stepsisters: The Emergence of the First Hebrew Women Poets and Other Essays. Tel Aviv: 1991, 249–271.
Kolat, Israel. Interview with Rahel Katznelson. Jerusalem: July 1962. The Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, File 161.
Katznelson, Rahel. A letter to Yehudit Harari (Hebrew). November 11. 1956. The Family Archive, Jerusalem.
Katznelson, Rivka. Rahel Katznelson: A Biography. The Family Archive, Jerusalem.
More on: Community Organizing, Labor, Women's Rights, Jewish Education, Libraries, Teachers, Israel, Civil Service,Organizations and Institutions, Socialism, Zionism, Hebrew
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Rachel Katznelson-Shazar 60s
Rachel Katznelson-Shazar ( Tu Cheshvan Trm"o , October 24, 1885 ,  Bobruisk , Minsk , Russian Empire - August 11, 1975 , Wednesday August Tsl , Jerusalem ) was a public figure who Israel . was one founders of the Workers Council , and worked to promote women in the community . wife of Israeli President Zalman Shazar .
Rachel Katznelson was born in 1885 (or 1888 ) in the city of Bobruisk in Minsk ( Belarus ; in the Pale of Settlement of the Russian Empire ) to a traditional family. At 18, she graduated in secondary school with honors Russian, and thus made possible the acceptance to the university, which was open to a few percent of the Jewish community because of the numerus clausus . According to studies in desire to Jewish literature in Yiddish and Hebrew , and in 1909 exercised the option and received formal education at the universityPetersburg as a student of literature and history. During those years she also studied at the Academy for Jewish Studies in the city. During her studies she first met Zalman Rubashov (later Shazar), whom she married in Jerusalem in 1920 . Before beginning his academic studies, in 1905joined the Socialist-Zionist movement Bobruysk.
Katznelson Israel immigrated to Israel in 1912 , and joined the working groups in Tel lentils and violinist . Three years later she was one of Maisdotih of active movement in the cylinder , which was the basis for the founding of the Workers Council in the 20s . In 1916 was elected the first Katznelson Culture Committee of the workers' movement, alongside Katznelson and Tabenkin , and worked with them to increase their knowledge of the work.Then was elected to the Cultural Committee of the Party of Labor Unity , and in 1924 was a member of the Cultural Committee of the General Workers' Union .
Her work focused on the Federation Council operate, and Katznelson founded the journal of the Council operate " anything that works ", which heheld for 25 years. Besides, was a member of the Executive Committee of the World, member of presidium of the General Council and a member of Central Mapai . behalf of these entities is to be chosen as served as a delegate to the Zionist Congress , the Assembly of Representatives and international conferences. in 1938 and in 1947 was sent to the educational missions to the Jews in Poland . newspaper "anything that works" published by her essays and articles on educational and literary. selection of books published in my notes, " Essays and Notes "( 1946 , winner of the award Brenner )  and " Hebrew soil "( 1966 ). 
Along with public functions, primarily as an "anything that works", Katznelson-Shazar was her husband's side as his various public offices MK , asminister in the Israeli government , a senior official in the Jewish Agency and President III. First Lady of it worked to strengthen the bonds of the state with women's organizations in the Diaspora and promoted the status of needy organizations and writers and artists.
In 1958 won the Katznelson-Shazar in Israel Prize for social sciences . 
In 1968 she was awarded the title of " Yakir Yerushalayim ".
Rachel Katznelson-Shazar died in 1975 , and was buried beside her husband in a plot of the greatest nation on Mount Herzl in Jerusalem .
They Rachel's brother Avraham Katznelson , Joseph Katznelson and Reuben Katznelson (father of Shulamit Katznelson and Shmuel Tamir ).
Writings [ edit source | edit ]
• Active movement, plants and aspirations , New York: Council operate , Ts"b 1941.
• Hebrew soil: Essays and Notes , Tel Aviv: Am Oved , the appropriate group.  }
• Accompanied me, and do not , Tel Aviv: Culture and Education in collaboration with Department publications of the Center for Culture and Education, 1969.
Published after her death:
• People like it: logs and periods (edited by Michal Gittite), Tel Aviv: Am Oved, PEI in 1989.
• Rachel and Zalman Shazar, beaches years: Letters, 1909-1963 (Edited and explanatory notes: Michal Gittite), Jerusalem: Zionist Library by the World Zionist Organization, Forthcoming.
Edited [ source code editing | edit ]
• Vas A?rbata?rins Dartziiln: A?- of Israel Buch / Tzoseamangastalt von Rachel Ctznalsan-Rubasaw, New York: Several pattern ; New York: Pioneer Women's Organization, 1931. (Yiddish)
• With a generation time: Half Jubilee bag of something that works / edited by Rachel Katznelson-Shazar, Jerusalem: The General Federation of Hebrew Workers in Eretz Israel - the Workers Council, Tsc"d.
The first book mentioned here (in Yiddish) is a translation of a book edited remarks of work, Tel Aviv, 1929 This was another book Besides the translations - German, English and probably Bulgarian.
Further reading [ edit source | edit ]
• Tamar Schechter, 'motherhood - the public expression of personal experience: the life and activities of Rachel Katznelson-Shazar, mask M (Tss"h), 29-58.
• Tamar Schechter, take heart: the story of Rachel Katznelson stranger (Ed Coordinator: Shlomit paid), Jerusalem: Yad Ben Zvi , Tsha"b 2011 (Biography)
External links [ edit source | edit ]
?Photos and Media on Wikimedia Commons : Rachel Katznelson-Shazar
• Biography database President of Israel
• Rachel Katznelson-Shazar on " Lexicon of Modern Hebrew Literature "
• Biography Zalman Shazar Center site
• Life story and memories from her site "the founding fathers of Zionism"
• Michal Gittite Chomsky, Rachel Katznelson-Shazar , in Encyclopedia of Jewish Women (English)
• David Tidhar (ed), " Rachel Katznelson-Rubashov , " Encyclopedia of the pioneers of community builders , Volume III (1949), page 1355
• Mary song, a lady journalist who won Israel , which , 6 May 1958
• Alyagon ore , Rachel, wife of President-Elect , Ma'ariv , 17 May 1963
• Katznelson Rebecca , Rachel Katznelson-Shazar - character and time , which , 6 June 1963
• Bracha Habas , editor: Rachel Shazar On the occasion of "the generation time" , which , June 19, 1964, continued
• Nili Friedlander, "the companies fostered peaceful warriors" , Ma'ariv , August 14, 1967
• LED Bronze, literary work of Rachel Shazar - at Bialik , anything , 9 December 1968
• Katznelson Rebecca , Rachel Shazar: Seven death , anything , August 20, 1975
• Joseph Katznelson
commander of the movement Betar , and one of its leaders, one of the first
members of the " Alliance thugs "and founder of the Irgun . He was active in organizing centers snaked " Although the rise ", organized by the Revisionist movement, and was given the title" Minister of mountaineering "of that increase traffic and dedicated his life until his death this operation. He died in Warsaw during World War II .
Youth dit ]
Joseph Katznelson was born in Bobruisk in Belarus on 1 August 1896 , Nissan and Zelda. The father was a merchant and timber shipping business and was also active in public life of the Jewish community. Joseph was the youngest brother. He had three brothers: Samuel firstborn, Reuben (father of the Minister of Justice former Shmuel Tamir and nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize Shulamith Katznelson ) and Abraham (signer of the Declaration of Independence ), and two sisters, Rachel (who later became the wife of third President of Israel, Zalman Shazar ) and Frida. In his youth he studied at room Bobruysk amended, and studied in gymnasiums government Vsndomiz 'in Poland and hometown.
Katznelson was arrested by the Bolsheviks for several months, and was to be executed, after escaping his family, including brother's widow and five children Samuel, beyond the borders of Russia. Once liberated from prison, moved Katznelson Poland and from there to Vienna , where he absorbed the best of European culture, studied history and philosophy at the University of Vienna . Vienna, graduated from the School of Commerce and the national economy was at a crossroads, when available a few months, it decided to take a visit there in the land of Israel .
Immigrating to Israel and joined the Revisionists [ edit source | edit ]
Katznelson was not born grades. In his youth, in his twenties, after the Soviet revolution, not his perceived to Zionism . Pioneering Zionist kibbutz, thisoccupation work , or spiritual Zionism of Ahad Ha'am , or practical Zionism of the left-wing parties, not fired the imagination. Katznelson not particularly excited about the fact that Jews are becoming farmers, because in his eyes it should not be the target response, Israel has to return to Israel, despite the great effort required to do so.
For a long time did not consider himself a Zionist Katznelson. He immigrated to Israel following the relatives who were active Zionists, and here in the country continued to view itself as a non-Zionist. Initially believed that Zionism is nothing but the movement of lobbying and socialism , which aroused his soul rejection. Once he became aware of the existence of another Zionism, immediately began to see himself as a Zionist. Katznelson was assigned to work with " Solel Boneh "and there was up to management and working methods failed. He was convinced that the Jewish economy, as it is conducted by the party leaders, workers can not develop and absorb mass.
Two things tied Katznelson with the land and Zionism: Fourth Aliya Zionism and revolutionary, starting with the Jewish Legion and Nili , and indeed Katznelson immigrated to Israel skylight - January 1925 . When he Katznelson Israel, believed that it costs, which means it does not come to settle, but to spy out the land.
Situation in the country has made it the most severe opponent of Zionism accepted. Katznelson's anger official Zionism man, when he thought she was thwarting the rise in fourth. riots Riots (1929) caused the anger of official Zionism Katznelson prevail, that thought is not doing enough for the Protection of the Jewish community without protection.
When Ze'ev Jabotinsky introduced his doctrine: The Hebrew revival, spread out before Zionism Katznelson other revolutionary political Zionism, which the national revival - with Israeli Statehood. Katznelson eyes first task was to rise up against the British, because they are the obstacle to the independence and sovereignty, and the road is not taken into account and Bgzirotihm their laws, and in violation to the extent feasible. The beginning of the rebellion does not have to be expressed in an armed rebellion but a mass protest, demonstrations, followed by armed clashes come with police and security forces, and at last break out of the underground armed rebellion. Katznelson believed that life is foreign occupation, the British will become unbearable. Aba Ahime'ir contributed to the formulation of this theory in the early thirties together with Katznelson, where only power and the willingness to sacrifice, liberated the country from the British, and that the economy must be free.
Katznelson came to national Revisionist movement led by Ze'ev Jabotinsky , and after the events of the riots joined its ranks - the " Revisionist ".Katznelson helped organize elections, is the focus of preparations but never presented himself as a realistic candidate. He was ready to engage in any election-related craft, if the organization of the list, if the invention of money, but all those behind the scenes. Katznelson was the premier negotiations on the train list and propaganda organization. Revisionist way was through the "Revisionist workers organization" and Betar . Revisionist very outset, it has played key roles Katznelson Commander Beitar Jerusalem, a member of the center axis of movement and the global Looaidth inVienna in 1932 , and while What served as the chairman of the New Zionist Organization in the country.
Maximalist national traffic flow was formulated by Aba Ahime'ir , Uri Zvi Greenberg and Katznelson. Maximalist called that because they demanded a Jewish state now. Katznelson and youth organized Betar , and turned it into a more disciplined, more war and more important factor. Was to let the Betar youth group kind, and is formulated and gave her fighting spirit. both partners view of Aba Ahime'ir , by way of the Zionist revolution, Katznelson and Jacob Ornstein, increased the activist-rebellious tendency, according to the Bolshevist version. Katznelson was the Communist revolution in high esteem and admiration for the force and scope. Beitar Jerusalem commander, was one of the most important thinkers of the Soviet thugs , trustees States only knew that he was the main contributor to carry out their activities. extensive activities in all institutions of the Revisionist party is not satisfied him, because he believed that the movement of liberation can not be motion possession - He rejected the communism and the Socialismand referred to the imaginary achievements. personnel Katznelson Soviet thugs saw the man who can only act to head, when it moves real underground demonstrations.
In the previous period to the murder of Arlosoroff in 1933 relations between the Zionist left parties of the " Revisionist "tense. following the murder, there were many who thought that the revisionists, or some of their friends, plotted the murder and Vicohu. Ahime'ir, Stavsky and Rosenblatt were charged with murder and stood trial before a Mandatory law. those days established by the Public Committee headed by Rav Kook . Katznelson was motivated Rabbi Nathan Miliicovsky, turn to Rabbi Kook and unravel the plot. rabbi agreed to take the lead until he enlisted safeguards for defendants, and thereby breached the way to the introduction of Rabbi Kook campaign of public law. After the murder of Arlosoroff prohibited Katznelson member of the Soviet thugs , remember and released for lack of evidence.
Katznelson was the fiercest opponents of the policy of restraint in Trtz"o-Atartz events and contributed greatly to the establishment of the Irgun(National Military Organization) in 1931 ., he organized the young people, spoke to them and gave them practical functions, and thus shaped the National Youth Warrior infrastructure. means the individual who created it Ex Beitar location of the Irgun . Katznelson see the Irgun underground army, which he dreamed all day, and it affected the Irgun command to respond to the Arab riots of the settlement, when the Zionist institutions responded with restraint. elevation see action to save Israel's honor and dignity especially of Israeli youth. British police searched for Katznelson result of actions of the Irgun, and he went into hiding for several months. In 1938 , when he was nearly caught by the police, he decided it was dangerous to remain in the country Katznelson and decided to flee to Europe. He moved to the port of Haifa on a ship bound for Europe, where he became addicted to his life last - illegal immigration .
Katznelson and illegal immigration it ]
When he came to Europe in the summer of Katznelson 1938 , entrusted him the Jabotinsky movement immigration and illegal immigration , organized by it. Just as the country worked with enthusiasm and momentum to raise the Irgun on the war path, the Diaspora raised the main route of illegal immigration in realizing national destiny. official institutions in the Revisionist movement , see political action, negotiations with governments, Zionist activity more important than responding from illegal immigration , but Katznelson Zionism believed the military, revolutionary Zionism. Katznelson decided to organize a mass immigration of Jews to Israel in Israel, at illegal ways., he believed that only in this way will it be possible to create a powerful Jewish community real. Katznelson saw the rise of mass illegal immigration the most important thing in his life . he set the center of action inWarsaw , which was the largest Jewish community in Eastern Europe. Katznelson argued that the settlement in the country is left-handed, because the government mandate handed to left key immigration and it is believed that force revisionist take the key immigration from them, and that persuasion ideology will not convince the community. Katznelson argued that the increase to Israel, Israel must be the taxi, which should remove as many Jews as possible, led by young people. believed vigor Jews should move to Europe to Israel, and Israel will change the rise in the nature of community and character. Katznelson became involved in the organization and concentration of the rise even though , at the beginning of 1939 , is an increase in 'Revisionist movement. Goal before his eyes was a bulk upload Israeli Jews to Israel and the fulfillment of the evacuation plan Ze'ev Jabotinsky .
Katznelson spent this last plant life his energy, his talent for organization, his personal integrity and above all - his enthusiasm and faith. This complex activity, which required different qualities and talents, Katznelson revealed aggressive leader. It is believed that his actions will succeed thanks to a substantial part of Jewish youth from Poland to Israel in Israel, and that Betar which the Palestinians will be released offices of the agency and certificates. thus found the key to the rise of the Revisionists and the Mandatory government and the agency . Katznelson believed that illegal immigration will change the face of the Yishuv in Israel . illegal immigrants who went through the agony and anguish of exile in Poland, immigration, youth will be different localities under the control of the agency , and want a change. thus will not only rescue the immigrants, but they will be extra liberation of Israel from the British.
Menachem Begin said:
Despite calls for the selection, and in the pogrom constant, we began to bring Jews. This plant was placed at the head of Joseph Katznelson. Our commander Joseph Katznelson was the main factory mountaineering . We called immigration Knight ..
Katznelson, who had assumed the central role in the illegal immigration operation and procurement of ships to transport thousands of illegal immigrants, believed that the government will mandate helpless against illegal immigration , and the English did not dare to drown the illegal immigrant ship, fearing the anger of the Jews in the Diaspora. Katznelson task held the funds and negotiating high-level captains and smugglers, and that was running trains and planes across Europe. Duties included supervision of the financial transactions associated with illegal immigration , which was the language of the immigration legal. He coordinated and managed all contacts with government agencies and private companies. Katznelson and his friends went to make the first plan of raising a fleet immigrants, at least five ships. Three of these Jews were not political, and at two - Betar, the Polish government gave them weapons unofficially.
To realize illegal immigration, Joseph Katznelson passed his last months, the length and breadth of Europe, from Warsaw to London and fromAmsterdam to Athens , and the year before his death he said:
Here I passed the age of forty. These were the years of study, and more when I learned in school, I learned that life market.Indeed, the age of forty is quite considerable age. But not yet too late. Brother probably sixty years. More than that I do not want. I do not want to be old. Well, I have about twenty years. You can catch a lot, especially in our time, when day per year will be considered ..
The Last Days [ edit source code | edit ]
All his energy spent Joseph Katznelson illegal immigration, until in June 1939 fell ill, Warsaw. Lightly wounded by shrapnel September air raid by the Germans and four months later, in January 1940 , he died of kidney disease, in the arms of his wife, Zlata.
Joseph Katznelson garden in Tel Aviv
Approaching his death, Joseph asked his wife Zlata move his body to Jerusalem. He gave detailed instructions on the nature of which remained hidden in the closet, made of tin and wood, for the purpose of migration to Palestine. He determined the burial place on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem, next to the grave of Jacob Raz, a member of the Irgun killed in the first mission, after he was caught when he tried to Jerusalem plant a bomb in the evenings.
His remains were brought to Israel in 1957 and is buried in the cemetery Sanhedriya. The garden is named in Ramat Aviv Gimmel in Tel Aviv , the city street Bat Yam .
Further reading [ edit source | edit ]
• Ahime'ir, a. (1974). Death of Joseph Katznelson after love after the hate. New York: Committee to remove the Ahime'ir
• Ahime'ir, s. (1983). Black Prince Joseph Katznelson and national movement in the 30s. Tel Aviv: Jabotinsky Institute
• Ahime'ir, s. And Shatsky, s. (1978). We Sicarii: evidence and documents on the Soviet thugs. Tel Aviv: signs
• Lazar-Litai, h. (1988). Even though: an increase in 'Jabotinsky movement. Israel: The Public Committee to mark the Jubilee rise even though
• Tin-Ashkenazi, a. (1998). Betar in Israel, 1925-1947. Example: Jabotinsky Institute
External links [ edit source | edit ]
• Katznelson memorial site for fallen soldiers in Israel
• Katznelson Betar site
Footnotes [ edit source | edit ]
1. ^ Tin-Ashkenazi, a. (1998). Betar in Israel, 1925 - 1947 Jerusalem: Jabotinsky Institute
2. ^ Ahime'ir, a. (1974). Death of Joseph Katznelson after love after the hate. New York: Committee to remove the Ahime'ir
Categories :Wikipedia: Editing - PeopleGrades born the 19th century: the community membersIrgun
Date of birth
Date of death
May 18, 1956(age 67 or so)
Provisional State Council
Dr. Avraham Katznelson ( Niss?n ) ( 1888 , H'trm"h - May 18, 1956 , I Sivan H'tst"z ) was a doctor and a Zionist activist . served as head of the health department of the Jewish Agency and the National Council , a member of the Executive Committee Zionist , the Zionist Executive , the Assembly of Representatives and the Provisional Council of State . signer of the Declaration of Independence .
Katznelson was born in Bobruisk , brother of Joseph , Reuben - The father of former Justice Minister Shmuel Tamir , Shmuel and Rachel, wife of Israeli President Zalman Shazar . Studied at heder and high school and was a student at the Academy of Jewish Studies, St. Petersburg and universities in St. Petersburg and Moscow . He also studied at the Academy of Social Hygiene in Berlin . In 1912 he earned a Doctor of Natural Sciences , and in 1914 was ordained to the medicine . During the First World War(1914- 1918 ) served as a military doctor in the Russian army . In 1919 - 1920 he was director Eretz Israel Office in Istanbul and took care of the immigrants who made their way to Israel in Israel .
Since 1912 a member of the General Council . In 1921 - 1923 he was a member of the Association of Head Office Young Worker - Young Zionists in Berlin and Vienna . In 1924 he immigrated to Israel and became the first director of the Ministry of football in the country. Served as director of the health department of the Jewish Agency ( 1924 - 1930 ) and a member of the National Committee and the Director of the Department of Health ( 1931 - 1948 ). He served as a member of the Assembly of Representatives second, third and fourth from the Hapoel Hatzair and then Mapai . carried more public roles as a member of the Executive Committee of the Technion and Radio Council of the Land of Israel during the British Mandate . member of the Zionist Executive was secretary of the Health.
Katznelson was a member of the Provisional State Council and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence . Since the establishment of the state until March 1949 was the Director General of the Ministry of Health  . In 1949 joined the delegation of Israel to the United Nations , and then joined the Foreign Ministry . November 1950 he served five years axis of Israel in Scandinavia and sat in Stockholm . At the beginning of 1956 due to an illness in his mission, and died a few weeks later.
From 1919 he was married to Sima Wolf Kaplan daughter, doctor. Samuel was the father (a doctor) and wolf (interest), the wife of Matti Peled , who was named after her grandfather from her mother.
External links [ edit source | edit ]
Photos and Media on Wikimedia Commons : Avraham Katznelson
• Abraham Aharoni, Abraham Nissan (Katznelson) , in the Jewish Library Online (in English)
• Therefore we gathered, we , on the site of Tel Aviv Magazine , April 23, 2004
• David Tidhar (ed), " Dr. Abraham Nissan (Katznelson) , " Encyclopedia of the pioneers of community builders , Volume VII (1956), page 2794
Israeli delegation to the UN led by Abba Eban , 1950 ; Right: Gideon Rafael ( Foreign Office ), Dr. Avraham Katznelson ( Ministry of Health ), Abba Eban , Dr. Jacob Robinson(lawyer) and Arthur Luria (the Israeli consul in New York and Deputy Head of Delegation)
Footnotes [ edit source | edit ]
1. ^ Report of the Committee ranking government employees, in 1949 the Ministry of Health will start in Tel Aviv on May 15 , Ma'ariv , April 18, 1948 Dr. A.. Katznelson resigned from the Ministry of Health , Freedom , March 2, 1949
[ hide ]
signers of the Declaration of Independence (in order of signature)
David Ben-Gurion · Daniel Auster · Mordechai bentov · Yitzhak Ben-Zvi · Elijah Berlin · Peretz Bernstein · Wolf Gold · Meir Argov · Yitzhak Greenbaum · Granot · Dobkin · Meir Vilner · Warhaftig · Herzl Vardi (Rosenblum) · Rachel Cohen-Kagan · Kalman Kahana · Saadia conquerors · Yitzhak Meir Levin · Meir David Loewenstein · Zvi Lurie · Golda Meir · Nahum Nir Rfalks · Zvi Segal · Yehuda Leib Hacohen Maimon · David Zvi Pinkas · Aaron Zisling · Moshe Kol · Eliezer Kaplan · Avraham Katznelson · Pinchas Rosen · David Remez · Burl Raptor · Mordechai Shatner · Ben-Zion Sternberg · reactor-Shalom Shitrit · Haim Moshe Shapira · Moshe Sharett
CEOs Ministry of Health
Avraham Katznelson | Joseph Mayer | Chaim Sheba | Simon tamper | Gideon Mer | Saul summoned | Rafael Grschebina | Welcome cashed |Jacob Menchel | Mordechai Shani | Baruch Modan | Dan Michaeli | Theo Dov Golan | Yoram Angeles | Moshe Mashiah | Mordechai Shani | Meir Oren | Gabi Barabash | Joshua Shemer | Boaz Lev | Avi Israeli | Eitan Hai-Am | Ronnie Gamzo | Arnon Afek
Shulamith Katznelson - founder and director Akiva studio. Shulamit was born in Geneva - Switzerland, in August 1919 when her parents were students there. Her father, Dr. Reuben Katznelson helped lay the foundation of public medical and social work in the country. Mother, Batsheva Katznelson, was an educator and MK II. Shulamit's brother, the late Shmuel Tamir, Knesset member and was then Minister of Justice. Shulamit immigrated to Israel When she was two years old. Jerusalem home was always open to all. Domestic pluralism reflected the wide range of socio-political views were represented in it. Aunt, Zalman Shazar, was the third President of the State of Israel. Uncle Monday, Abraham Nissan, was a leader of the labor movement and the first ambassador to Sweden., While Uncle Joseph Katznelson, was active in the Revisionist movement and volunteered in World War II to rescue Jewish children from the Nazis. Yet, despite the political differences unified family was her devotion to Zionism and building a substantial contribution to the country and the state. Shulamit Learning Path - a gymnasium Rechavya; School of Social Work; studies towards a master's degree in adult education at the University of Michigan Ann Arbor United States within the framework of the United States government studies, and then, at the International Quaker Penalty-Hill, near Philadelphia. in 1951 established one of the three studios first in Israel. initially Nahariya and then Netanya, it ran until 1996.beginning of his career, opened the studio its doors not only to new immigrants and veteran Israelis who ruled in , but also for tourists - Jews and non-Jews - all over the world, as well as Druze, Bedouins, Samaritans and Arabs on both sides of the Green Line. studio serves as a meeting place to the Jews in Israel and the Diaspora; residents of the country of the Jews and non-Jews, and Jews with the nations of the world. 's belief Shulamit - pluralism in adult education promotes understanding between people of cultural backgrounds, different religious and national - and the studio brought her recognition and great international appreciation. Hebrew studies classes were always accompanied by Israeli heritage and knowledge of the people and the country, meeting and friendship atmosphere. since the Six-Day War, served as a studio led by Shulamit spearhead the advancement of teaching spoken Arabic. Ulpan Akiva opened every month for individuals spoken Arabic courses, educators sabbatical, and state employees. National Defense College held 20 rounds in the studio, an intensive course in Arabic, which is also integrated into the studies of Arab culture and heritage. Ulpan value, in conjunction with the Education Ministry and the IDF, an 8-month course to train teachers for teaching Arabic women soldiers in the Israeli education system (and Btsn"t, soldiers and years of service Institute). fostering understanding and dialogue across the partitioned national background, cultural and religious were reinforced when he was appointed at the recommendation Shulamit of Martin Buber, the founder of the Committee staff Hbindtit. Professor Buber, then, also a student Professor Hugo Bergman, on his way to see Akiva studio the realization of their theories dealing with human relations. organized studio in 1990 Akiva coordination with the Ministry of Education and Culture Special International Conference revival languages. The revival of the Hebrew language is an inspiration to researchers minority languages such as Basque, Gaelic, Welsh and Occitan. Teaching method unique for Language Teaching Shulamit and staff studio under his leadership, aroused great interest among these groups, and their representatives are paid to implement the method of studio revival of tongues. since its founding, studied studio Akiva 80,000 -148 countries, Jews in Israel and the Diaspora, and their religions and cultures. 1972 There is a close relationship between the studio and the group of pro-Israel Makuya, Japan. In recent years, many groups have visited the studio of pilgrims, Jews and non-Jews, who want to get first hand information on the subject of immigration and absorption of Jewish-Arab relations in Israel. B - 1953 Shulamit was sent for training in the United States. in 1972, represented Israel in the UNESCO conference in Japan. In 1983 was a member of the Israeli delegation to the international conference in Paris Languages: "Aksfolng". In 1991 was on a lecture tour on behalf of the United States and Canada Hbond's. Summer of 1992 she was invited to lecture at the prestigious international "beyond hate -lhiot with the deepest differences between us", held in the city of Derry, Ireland. February 1996, she was invited to the National Prayer Breakfast attended by the President Bill Clinton and his wife. Shulamith Katznelson had a special relationship with the movement of people in Scandinavia schools as well as number of pro-Israel organizations in Norway. In 1956, the women participated in a conference Shulamit Education Asia, held in Sweden, and then paid off in adult education in the schools people in Scandinavia. again in 1990 she was invited to participate in an international conference schools movement of people, conducted in Sweden, and Norway also visited. And in 1992 was invited to speak at conferences of the Norwegian organization "with Israel in peace" ("MIFF - WITH ISRAEL IN PEACE") and an organization that helps immigrant absorption in Israel (JEWS HELP HOME.) in 1986 paid and the studio was awarded the Israel Prize for Lifetime Achievement in Education "workshop Hebrew humanism and human brotherhood. " In addition, Shulamit awarded many prestigious awards: Speaker Award for Quality of Life (1983), Prize "mutual respect" of the Movement for the good land of Israel, named president of the Supreme Court, Judge Yitzhak Cohen (1988), a prize-order " allies "in Israel (1988), decoration 'friend Netanya" (1985) Certificate of "valor" of the association for the social and cultural (1984), Award of Appreciation Committee Interfaith Israel (1982), and award the Union for Adult Education in Israel - Torch adult education , named Hanan Lapid (1976). Likewise, Shulamith Katznelson was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992, 1993. She retired from the management of the studio in 1996 for health reasons. Shulamit died a week it arrived grows old, in Father Tsn"t , at her home in Netanya.
Date of birth
March 10, 1923
Date of death
June 29, 1987 (age 64)
6 - 9
Gahal , Center for free ,the Likud , DS ,democratic movement , a single MK
• Minister of Justice
• Chairman of the Economic Committee
Moshe Shmuel ( automatic translation, no editing) ) Tamir ( Katznelson ) ( 10 March 1923 - 29 June 1987 ) was a lawyer , member of the Knesset and Minister in the first government of Menachem Begin
Tamir was born Moshe Shmuel Katznelson in Jerusalem in 1923 . His father, Dr. Reuben Katznelson , helped lay the foundation for medicine and to public social work in the country (founded a popular HMO, later consolidated HMO ) and was adjutant of Trumpeldor . His mother, Batsheva Katznelson , was a member of the Second Knesset and educator. Sister, Shulamit Katznelson , was a recipient of the Israel Prize and nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. Uncle, Avraham Katsnelson was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and the first Israeli ambassador to Scandinavia, his uncle Joseph Katznelson leaders of the Revisionist movement and a founder of the Irgun, and aunt Rachel Katznelson was the wife of Zalman Shazar , as President of the State of Israel third. studied at the Hebrew Gymnasium and after school to law , and was admitted as an attorney .
A member of the Irgun and Herut Movement [ source code editing | edit ]
In 1938 joined the Irgun . in 1944 was a member of the Jerusalem district headquarters where he commanded the income tax office blast in the city, was the commander of the Jerusalem district intelligence department, in 1946 he was appointed deputy commander of the Jerusalem district, was arrested by the British authorities in 1944 , in 1946 he was exiled to Kenya and was also arrested in 1947 .
In 1948 was one of the founders of the Herut movement and left it in 1952 , together with a group which included Samuel Merlin , Hillel Kook and Ari Jabotinsky , who views hue Canaanite significant (Eri Jabotinsky was a close friend of witnesses Horon , ideology and the drafters of the Canaanite ideology). Tamir was a right-winger, and the early years of the state, dominated by Mapai and left-wing parties, Tamir mouth was anti-establishment parties, that the Mapai government struggled at times in words and deeds. What his views served weekly anti-establishment " of this world ". AlthoughUri Avnery , editor of the magazine, there was no right-winger, part Avnery Tamir's views regarding the establishment, and proximity to the Canaanite movement.
Tamir was a lawyer articulate harsh anti-establishment, and fight a war of extermination Mapai and all who represented their opinion. The trials known to them appeared especially remembered trial of Dov SHILANSKY , eventually speaker who was arrested in October 1952 when a draw explosive device, and charged that is a member of the underground who intended to work against reparations . SHILANSKY sentenced to 21 months in prison, but his trial was published and opinions received considerable, not least because of the protection provided him convert.
Also represented members' volunteer-line "anti-establishment organization published a pamphlet containing allegations against the Deputy Chief ofPolice , Amos Ben-Gurion (the son of David Ben-Gurion ) concerning corruption. Amos Ben-Gurion, the organization filed against a libel suit, which discussed for two years, from 1956 , and during the hearing of the claim raised corruption charges against Tamir police and the establishment of Mapai. After the trial and its implications Yehezkel Sahar resigned police commissioner.
Buy the most famous convert during which represented Malkiel Gruenwald criminal libel case filed against him due to his remarks about Israel Kastner . Greenwald accused Kastner, a leader of the Jews of Hungary during the Holocaust , and after immigrating to Israel members from Mapai, he laid the groundwork for the murder of Hungarian Jews by the Nazis and participated in the looting of their property by the Nazi friend, the senior war criminal Kurt Becher . Greenwald also accused the Kastner providing false testimony in favor of Baker. Minister of Trade and Industry Dov Yoseftold him that then-Attorney General Chaim Cohen is that Kasztner as a public servant will defend itself by filing a libel suit against Greenwald, rather than resign. prosecutor's office charged him with respect to libel. Tamir accepted the representation of Grunwald, and he did this so unusual.
The trial began in January 1954 the Jerusalem District Court to the President of the Court, Judge Benjamin Halevi . Court has become a wide-ranging investigation of all the Holocaust in Hungary . You start a libel suit against Greenwald Tamir managed to turn the public eye during the Kastner trial ", and scroll harsh accusation against the leaders of the Yishuv, the Jewish Agency and Mapai that covered the Holocaust in the Kastner and his actions and deliberately silenced the news of the death by order of the British and in cooperation with them.
Tamir slammed Kastner charges of collaboration with the Nazis , hiding the news of the danger of extermination against the Jews of Hungary, the abandonment of the Jewish masses to save the Jews of the train, "privileged", who were relatives and friends, thwarting the mission of Joel Brandand the abandonment of paratroopers Joel factions , Peretz Goldstein and Hannah Szenes . Kastner also slammed fault alliance with Kurt Becher , expressed in giving evidence in his favor before a tribunal to de-Nazification and especially taking part in ransom money, fell by Becher himself.
As the trial was taking shape - the case against Greenwald severe indictment against Kastner and circles which went, he attracted attention increasingly public opinion. District Attorney's Office became clear that the court has to tilt the original channels, viz - Greenwald's accusation. For this purpose, the lawyer replaced, the trial prosecutor who served as Attorney General himself, Haim Cohen , a lawyer of repute (and later a judge of the Supreme Court ).
On June 22, 1955 Judge Halevi read the verdict. Ruling was a bombing in the courtroom and in public opinion. "Kastner sold his soul to the devil," the judge ruled, and the Kastner found guilty of collaborating with the Nazi extermination of the Jews of Hungary and the rescue of Becher war criminal punishment.
The verdict caused a public storm and began to develop public awareness of the Holocaust (ad peaked after the Eichmann trial in the sixties).Attorney quickly filed an appeal against the judgment. While hearing the appeal continues, assassinated on March 4, 1957 Three young life in Israel Kastner and shot him dead in front of his house.
On 17 January 1958 , nearly a year after Kasztner was assassinated, the Supreme Court reversed the ruling of Judge Halevi thereunder. In a judgment given by the Supreme Court by a majority vote, the court cleared the name of Kastner for collaborating with the Nazis and preparing the ground for the destruction of the Jews of Hungary (but leaving intact the determination that Kastner's testimony Becher saved his sentence).However, Kastner case did not fall off the public agenda: the play "Kastner" by Motti Lerner became the first channel TV drama, and a book by Rudolf Vrba , "I escaped from Auschwitz", accused of treason, and the Kastner justified the judgment of Halevy.
Political activity [ source code editing | edit ]
In 1957 he founded the new regime with Yeshayahu Leibowitz - a political movement in the spirit of the anti-establishment views. In 1964 he returned and joined the freedom movement .
He was elected to MK in 1965 by the Gahal ("Herut-Liberal Bloc"), a party which united the freedom movement with the Liberal Party . The achievements of the movement of these elections were a disappointment, and United Movement has eight seats in less than two movements separately received in the previous election (although the Liberal Party withdrew due 5 Union MKs with freedom, and ran in the elections as the party of the Independent Liberals separately).
June 1966 challenged the leadership of Menachem Begin , who led the freedom movement in six elections until that time but was unable to bring it to power. Together with Ehud Olmert challenged the respect of freedom conference, claiming that the conclusions with respect to its inability in every election so far. After these remarks, quits his job (but returned to it a few months later). Motion were two camps: "Camp Tamir" and CAMP respect. "It was the latest challenge to his leadership of his party's respect.
February 1967 ended the conflict split. Tamir and his freedom movement were removed by the Chairman of the Court Iser Lubotsky , and established the " Free Center " party was headed by Tamir, Ehud Olmert , Akiva Nof and Eliezer Shostak .
After the introduction of freedom of a national unity government on the eve of the Six Day War , Tamir and his left opposition. After the Six-Day War, the movement took an even more hawkish line from the Herut movement were members of the government.
In the seventh Knesset elections held in 1969 the party won two seats. Tamir spent years in opposition. In 1973 , with the establishment of the movement of the Likud , was joined by members of the Knesset "Free Center" and convert them.
Tamir stood apart in his views of the Likud, and showed a moderate and independent thinking. Served as Chairman of the Economic Committee ofthe Knesset . Towards the ninth Knesset elections set Yadin movement called " Democratic Movement for Change "(DS). Many joined the movement saw it as an option for a fundamental change of regime in Israel, and to inject fresh breeze. Among those joining the movement was Shmuel Tamir and Benjamin Halevi (Kastner trial judge, who had elected to the Knesset on the Herut) resigned from the Knesset demanded by us. List of Knesset DMC was the first directly elected by the voters and Shmuel Tamir came with headquarters organized many of his associates managed to get the list.
After the elections in May 17, 1977 , which brought the transformation of government and brought the Likud to power, the first time in the history of the state, did not join the coalition first DMC. part, but after pressure the government joined DS in October 1977 . Shmuel Tamir was appointedMinister of Justice , a position he held until 1980 .
DS did not last, and broke a number of factors, including the movement called Democratic Movement , which he joined Tamir. Lbsoc democratic movement fell apart too, and Tamir established a single faction.
After the tenth Knesset elections in 1981 which did not offer his candidacy for the Knesset, Tamir resigned his private dealings.
Activity in negotiations for the release of prisoners of war [ source code editing | edit ]
After the Lebanon War were by different organizations, and by Syria Israeli prisoners. Had to be negotiated with the leaders of the organizations and other entities and Tamir was appointed by the government to serve C"io"r team cohesion Treatment of Prisoners of War. "Release of prisoners took place in several stages. Firstly released six soldiers Infantry captured in 1982 , in exchange for 4,700 terrorists [ 1] , November 1983 . After the release of the remaining hostages are Syria and the organization of Ahmed Jibril . Syria's remaining prisoners were released in June 1984 for three hundred Syrian soldiers who were captured during the war. Also returned the bodies of the soldiers held by the Syrians.
In 1985 retired from this post due to his opposition to the deal being formulated called " Jibril deal "in which 1,150 terrorists were released in exchange for three soldiers (Hezi Shai, Nissim Salem and Joseph Groff). The transaction (carried out in May 1985) strong public criticism. Tamir, who saw the deal as a reasonable ,.  wanted to retire shortly after government approval of the transaction. Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin , Tamir's resignation concern, the Director considered tough negotiations, may harden the position of Jibril and therefore refused to accept his resignation. He managed to convince the convert to postpone his resignation until after the transaction  .
Tamir died on June 29, 1987 , and was buried in the cemetery Sanhedriya Jerusalem.
Family [ source code editing | edit ]
Tamir was married to Ruth Gurvich, sister of the poet Aliza Greenberg (p. Tur-Malka), wife of the poet Uri Zvi Greenberg . His son, Lieutenant David Tamir , a helicopter pilot in the Air Force flight in killed in a car July 8, 1971 . enrichment route was established in memory of 10 fallen accident  .
Daughter Leora married to Professor Pierre Shuraki - Nuclear Cardiology Department Chair in Israel. director of the Institute of Nuclear Medicine Hospital Hillel Yaffe . His second daughter, Dr. Noga Duchovny, professor of English married to Professor Ehud Duchovny, a physicist at the Weizmann Institute. Heads the research team of the Swiss particle accelerator; son, Advocate Joseph Tamir  , an expert in litigation and a former member of the Central Committee of Bar Association. Heads the law firm Tamir & Co., married attorney Einat Tamir Kolski, an expert on commercial law.
Autobiography [ Edit Source Code | Editor ]
• Shmuel Tamir, son of this land : an autobiography (two volumes), Lod Zamora Bitan , 2002. 
Further reading [ edit source | edit ]
• Tell Tamir / edited by attorney Joseph Tamir, Ora Hirsch Technical Editor: Shlomo Peretz, New York: Tanner, Ats 1999 (Tamir's memory book)
• Gabriel Strassman , "Shmuel Tamir jurist who sought truth and justice", Nation , 40, 150 (2002), 157-166.
• Yekhiam Weitz , "Herut Movement - Shmuel Tamir, and the Kastner trial: three documents from the archives of Aryeh Ben-Eliezer Jabotinsky Institute," the revival of Israel Studies 11 (Tss"a), 598-616.
External links [ edit source | edit ]
• Shmuel Tamir , the site of the Knesset
• David Tidhar (ed), " Moshe Shmuel Tamir (Katznelson) , " Encyclopedia of the pioneers of community builders , Volume VII (1956), page 2853
• Little Levine, 43 years ago today: a fictitious letter caused a furor Herut Party , the site of the country , September 6, 2009
• Levi Yitzchak in Jerusalem , three generations, three answers , Ma'ariv , 25 December 1970, continued (conversation with Dr. Reuven Katznelson, his son MK Shmuel Tamir and granddaughter Leora)
• Cemetery, beggars , Freedom , March 16, 1951
Footnotes [ edit source | edit ]
1. ^ Brigadier General Amos Gilboa , original sin , NRG Ma'ariv , October 16, 2011.
2. ^ Ronen Bergman , the State of Israel will do everything: the secret battle for POWs and MIAs (Editor: Shachar Alterman), Or Yehuda: Kinneret , Tss"t 2009, p 77.
3. ^ The State of Israel will do everything , p 109.
4. ^ When Tocfld, today: Egyptian Organization threatens to undermine Israeli monument , the site of Israel today , April 25, 2012
5. ^ saw him in his office Page
6. ^ See Review: Arye Naor , Lasso even double loop , Israel's third book, Second Edition Spring, 2003, pp 201-208
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May 11, 1886
May 1, 1944
Zvi KATZNELSON is shown here with his father, Itzhak, the great Jewish poet. Zvi was born on May 3, 1926, in Warsaw. Hannah, the poet's wife, and their two other sons, Ben Sion, age 14, and Benjamin, 11, were arrested in Warsaw, deported and murdered in Tréblinka. The poet and his oldest son were transferred at the end of 1943 to Vittel (Vosges) in France, and held in the Hotel Beausite, along with other Polish Jews who had, like them, accommodation passports from South American countries. But on April 18, 1944, 160 of them were sent west to Drancy, before going back east to Auschwitz on convoy 72 of April 29, 1944.
Hanna Katznelson (____ - 1942)
Zvi Katznelson (1926 - 1944)*
Benzion Katznelson (1928 - 1942)*
Benjamin Katznelson (1931 - 1942)*
Auschwitz Death Camp
Created by: OTMA
Record added: Jul 10, 2013
Find A Grave Memorial# 113620137
Added by: OTMA
Ira Katznelson (Ph.D., Cambridge, 1969) is an Americanist whose work has straddled comparative politics and political theory as well as political and social history. He returned in 1994 to Columbia, where he had been assistant and then associate professor from 1969 to 1974. In the interim, he taught the University of Chicago, chairing its department of political science from 1979 to 1982; and the Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research, where he was dean from 1983 to 1989.
His most recent books are Fear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time, Liberal Beginnings: Making a Republic for the Moderns (with Andreas Kalyvas), and When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America. Other books include Black Men, White Cities: Race, Politics and Migration in the United States, 1900-1930, and Britain, 1948-1968; City Trenches: Urban Politics and the Patterning of Class in the United States; Schooling for All: Class, Race, and the Decline of the Democratic Ideal (with Margaret Weir); Marxism and the City; Liberalism's Crooked Circle: Letters to Adam Michnik; andDesolation and Enlightenment: Political Knowledge after Total War, Totalitarianism, and the Holocaust. He has co-edited Working Class Formation: Nineteenth Century Patterns in Western Europe and North America (with Aristide Zolberg); Paths of Emancipation: Jews, States, and Citizenship (with Pierre Birnbaum); Shaped by War and Trade: International Influences on American Political Development(with Martin Shefter); Political Science: The State of the Discipline, Centennial Edition (with Helen Milner); Preferences and Situations: Points of Intersection Between Historical and Rational Choice Institutionalism (with Barry Weingast); Religion and Democracy in the United States: Danger or Opportunity? (with Alan Wolfe);Religion and the Political Imagination (with Gareth Stedman Jones); and Anxieties of Democracy: Tocquevillean Reflections on India and the United States (with Partha Chatterjee). He is currently completing Liberal Reason, a collection of his essays on the character of modern social knowledge.
Professor Katznelson is President of the Social Science Research Council. He was President of the American Political Science Association for 2005-2006. Previously, he served as President of the Social Science History Association and Chair of the Russell Sage Foundation Board of Trustees. He has been a Guggenheim Fellow and is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society.
Ruggles Professor of Political Science and History
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ira Katznelson (born 1944) is a leading American political scientist and historian, noted for his influential research on the liberal state, inequality, social knowledge, and institutions, primarily focused on the United States.
Katznelson graduated from Columbia University in 1966 with a B.A. and completed his PhD in history at the University of Cambridge in England in 1969. In 1969 he also co-founded the journal Politics and Society.
Katznelson taught at Columbia from 1969 to 1974, at the University of Chicago from 1974 to 1983, and at the New School for Social Research from 1983 to 1994. He was chair of the department of political science at UChicago from 1979 to 1982 and dean of the New School from 1983 to 1989. In 1994, Katznelson returned to Columbia, where he is the Ruggles professor of political science and history. In 2012, he was named president of theSocial Science Research Council.
Katznelson was president of the American Political Science Association (APSA) for 2005-2006. He previously served as president of APSA's Politics and History Section for 1992-1993 and as president of the Social Science History Association for 1997-1998. He has also been a Guggenheim Fellow, and was elected as a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2000 and the American Philosophical Society in 2004.
Katznelson has written or co-written ten books, co-edited several others, and published over sixty journal articles. His book Liberalism’s Crooked Circle: Letters to Adam Michnik (1996) won American Political Science Association's (APSA) Michael Harrington Prize. Desolation and Enlightenment(2003) won the David and Elaine Spitz Award of the Conference of Political Thought, given to the best book in liberal or democratic theory, and theDavid Easton Award of APSA’s Foundations of Political Thought Section. In March 2014, Katznelson was awarded the Bancroft Prize for his bookFear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time.
• Black Men, White Cities; Race, Politics, And Migration In The United States, 1900-30 and Britain, 1948-68. 1973. Oxford University Press.
• City Trenches: Urban Politics And The Patterning Of Class In The United States. 1981. Pantheon Books.
• Schooling For All: Class, Race, And The Decline Of The Democratic Ideal. 1985. Basic Books. (written with Margaret Weir).
• Working-Class Formation: Nineteenth-Century Patterns In Western Europe And The United States. 1986. Princeton University Press. (edited with Aristide Zolberg).
• Marxism And The City. 1992. Oxford University Press.
• Paths Of Emancipation: Jews, States, And Citizenship. 1995. Princeton University Press. (edited with Pierre Birnbaum).
• Liberalism’s Crooked Circle: Letters to Adam Michnik. 1996. Princeton University Press.
• Shaped By War And Trade: International Influences On American Political Development. 2002. Princeton University Press. (edited with Martin Shefter).
• Political Science: The State Of The Discipline. 2002. W.W. Norton. (edited with Helen Milner).
• Desolation And Enlightenment: Political Knowledge After Total War, Totalitarianism, And The Holocaust. 2003. Columbia University Press.
• When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History Of Racial Inequality In Twentieth-Century America. 2005. W.W. Norton.
• Preferences and Situations: Points of Intersection between Historical and Rational Choice Institutionalism. 2005. Russell Sage Foundation. (written with Barry Weingast).
• The Politics of Power: A Critical Introduction to American Government, 6th ed. 2006. (written with Mark Kesselman and Alan Draper). ISBN 978-0-15-570735-1
• Fear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time. 2013. ISBN 0871404508