Rubinstein Family
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#rbstn-1: Joshua Rubenstein Joshua Rubenstein wrote three books of Soviet history, but his experience as a stretcher-bearer during the campus demonstrations of 1968 led him to a career at Amnesty International that has lasted more than a quarter-century.
"What I learned at Columbia was that I was a Menshevik," reflects Rubenstein. "I had sympathy with the [demonstrators'] cause, but I parted company with their actions. Carrying a stretcher was the right thing to do."A native of New Britain, Conn., Rubenstein fondly recalls his academic pursuits at Columbia, especially a seminar with Lionel Trilling '25 and his decision to study Russian.
"I always knew that I wanted to study a foreign language with a different alphabet," he says. "I thought that by learning Russian â€" no matter what else I studied at Columbia â€" I would leave with something concrete that I would have for the rest of my life."
Rubenstein did not know at the time, however, how his study of Russian would affect the rest of his life. During a six-week language tour of the Soviet Union in 1970, he met an artist in Leningrad whom he would eventually profile, and it was this piece that convinced the editors at the Boston Phoenix to hire him as a book reviewer specializing in Soviet issues."At the time," Rubenstein recalls, "there were very few of us reviewing the literature being produced by Soviet writers, especially dissident writers, and that's what led to my first book."
Soviet Dissidents, Their Struggle for Human Right (1980) launched Rubenstein's career as a "professional student of Soviet history" and led him to a position at Harvard's Davis Center for Russian Studies. His follow-up work, Tangled Loyalties: The Life and Times of Ilya Ehrenberg (1996), was a widely praised biography of a Stalin-era writer/journalist that took more than 13 years to research and write.
"It took a number of trips to Moscow to complete that book," Rubenstein says. "When I first started working on the book in 1982, I could barely get in the country or get anyone to talk to me, but by the time I made my last trip in 1990, things had relaxed so much that I was asked to give a lecture series!
"I am most proud of that book," he adds, "and its theme, a Jewish topic."This theme would be repeated in Rubenstein's most recent work, Stalin's Secret Pogrom: The Postwar Inquisition of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, published in May. Rubenstein edited and helped translate the transcript of the secret trial of 15 Jewish intellectuals and authors in Moscow that ended with their execution in August 1952 on what has become known as "The Night of the Murdered Poets."
The subject matter of Stalin's Secret Pogrom could not have been more appropriate for Rubenstein: not only is it Soviet history, but it's also a study of the violation of basic human rights, a topic to which he dedicates his professional life as Northeast regional director of Amnesty International, USA.
Rubenstein stresses that his grass-roots organization plays a vital role in combating human-rights abuses domestically as well as globally. "In addition to organizing U.S. citizens to write letters about international issues," he says, "we want to make them aware of issues in our country like police brutality, the treatment of women in prisons and the death penalty."
Rubenstein, who lives in the Boston area with his wife and son, joined Amnesty International in 1975 as a volunteer because he "was interested in politics and it seemed that Amnesty had a balanced and sensible approach to political problems." Today, Rubenstein is one of the organization's two longest-serving employees and is responsible for overseeing the operations of its branches in New England, New York and New Jersey.
"My primary task is to organize Amnesty chapters at local high schools and colleges," he says, "as well as to do some fund-raising and work with the media. I am proud of my contribution and look forward to seeing what comes next."
#rbstn-2: Portrait of Helena Rubenstein by Graham Sutherland (1959)
Rubenstein, Helena: Founder of namesake cosmetic business and beauty salons
Szeroka Street in Kazimierz, the old Jewish quarter of Krakow was the birthplace of Helena Rubenstein. Her name may not be familiar to the younger generation but in the 1950s, her line of cosmetics was one of the most popular in America; her sweet-smelling Heaven Sent perfume was a favorite of many college co-eds and is still available, although hard to find.
#rbstn-4: Ariel Rubinstein is professor of economics at the universities of Tel Aviv and Princeton. The Faculty of Economic Sciences confers an honorary doctorate on him for his outstanding research accomplishments in economics and game theory. Rubinstein=s research on negotiation theory has provided new insights in labour economics and the theory of finance. In addition, his theoretical work has led to a better understanding of the way political coalitions are created. Rubinstein does not shy away from interdisciplinary research: he has worked on the interface between economics and law, built bridges between economics and information science, and published both on economic psychology and on language and economics

#rbstn-5 & #rbstn-6:

The splendid piano virtuoso Arthur Rubinstein enjoyed tremendous popularity from the time of his debut at the age of 12. Though born in Poland, Rubinstein lived for much of the time in Paris and Berlin when not touring the world.
Rubinstein was one of the first pianists to use the then-new medium of electronic recording, committing nearly his entire repertoire to vinyl. His command of the musical literature was vast, and included Chopin, Beethoven, Brahms, Schubert and Schumann.

#rbstn-7: Akiba Kivelovic Rubinstein was born December 12, 1882 in the Polish border town of Stawiski. He learned to play chess at the age of 16 in school where he played his classmates, and afterwards, his thoughts were on nothing else. He gave up theological studies for a professional chess career. In 1903 he placed 5th at a tournament in Kiev. After a few years of skill development, Rubinstein entered the international scene being a powerful force to contend and was one of the world's dominant players from 1905 to 1911.
As we learn of his many historical achievements, keep in mind that Rubinstein had a nervous disorder known as anthrophobia (fear of people and society) for his entire life. His poor mental health was clearly an extremely difficult disability for him to contend with and caused him enormous suffering throughout his life. But, in spite of his disability, Rubinstein was able to compete brilliantly for many years with the best chess players in the world and his games are studied and treasured to this day.
In 1910, when Schlecter challenged Lasker for the World Champion title, many considered Akiba Rubinstein to be the best chess player in the world. In those days the challenger to the World Champion was required to raise the money and finance the match. The World Champion alone would decide which challenger to play and this was largely based on the funding available. Rubinstein never had a chance to play for the Chess World Championship but he was considered the strongest chess player who did not have the opportunity to compete for the title.
In 1912, Rubinstein won tournament after tournament: he won five consecutive International tournaments and the year was dubbed the Rubinstein year, this had never been done before in the history of chess! Fifty years later Bent Larsen won 5 tournaments in a row, however it took him three years to achieve this while Rubinstein won at San Sebastian, Pistyan, Breslau, Warsaw and Vilna all in the same year.
Everybody demanded a match between Rubinstein and Lasker, clearly the only player who was close to Rubinstein in strength. Sadly, this match never took place. The beginning of deep psychological problems that eventually turned into full-fledged mental illness, the appearance of the Cuban chess genius Capablanca, and the advent of World War I all combined to dash his championship hopes.
In 1914 Nicholas II, the Czar of Russia, organized a tournament in St. Petersburg and invited all the greatest players in the world. The top five finishers would be given the title "Grandmaster". Tragically, Akiba Rubinstein failed to qualify in the top five. Though he remained one of the world's strongest players until about 1921, his pathological shyness and the erosion of his confidence led to a gradual disintegration of his powers. After World War I, Rubinstein continued to play in tournaments with moderate success but he did not revisit his former high level of play until he won the Vienna tournament in 1922, ahead of Alexander Alekhine and Richard Reti.
Rubinstein's style formed a bridge between the styles of Steinitz and the players of today. A mastery of openings, a deep understanding of the consequences of different types of pawn structures, and a skill in the endgame that has never been surpassed, were all part of his repertoire. Most notable, however, was his ability to connect the openings he played with the kinds of endgames that could be reached from them. This incredibly deep planning is commonly seen in modern champions, but it was virtually unheard of in Rubinstein's day.
Among the chess players who deserve our highest reverence, Akiba Rubinstein stands out as a unique contributor to chess. His noble career and life of great suffering stands as a beacon of light to all who study the game of chess as well as those who study life itself. Today, Rubinstein's games are carefully studied by all the finest players. His moves and concepts still seem fresh, his handling of the endgame is still remarkable, and his opening ideas are still all the rage.
After 1932, Rubinstein never competed in chess tournaments again, although he was invited to do so. His lifelong struggle with his mental health worsened and he spent time in a sanitarium. However, there was a bright side to this because it is possible that this protected him from the Germans during World War II and he was left alone. He spent his final years until his death in 1961 with his family in Belgium.
www.chess-poster.com/images/ rubinstein.gif
#rbstn-8: Pictured; Nikolay and Anton Rubinstein
Anton Grigorievich Rubinstein
(1829 -1894) Not to be confused with the great pianist Artur Rubinstein, born in 1887, Anton Rubinstein, an even greater performer in his time and a clear rival to Liszt and other great pianists of the 19th century, had a marked effect on the development of music in Russia, establishing the first system of professional musical training at a new Conservatory in St. Petersburg in 1862. His brother Nikolay set up a similar institution in Moscow. The Conservatories were not welcomed by the nationalist composers, who regarded them as a German intrusion, although the Rubinsteins were Russian, if of German-Jewish extraction. As a composer Anton Rubinstein was prolific, writing, as his brother suggested, enough music for both of them. His very technical facility told against him so that by the time of his death his work was not properly valued by supporters of Russian musical nationalism.
Rubinstein wrote seventeen operas. These are no longer part of general repertoire, but excerpts from the fantastic opera The Demon and the opera Feramors may be heard occasionally in concert extracts.
Rubinstein's orchestral compositions include six symphonies, of which the second, "Ocean", is the best known. He wrote five piano concertos and other works for piano and orchestra and concertos for both violin and cello.
As prolific here as in other forms of music, Rubinstein wrote a number of string quartets, three violin sonatas and two cello sonatas, in additon to other chamber works, none often heard, except possibly the sonata for viola and piano, a useful addition to an otherwise exiguous repertoire for the viola.
Rubinstein, as a leading virtuoso of the instrument, wrote a quantity of music for the piano. Of all the sonatas, suites, serenades and other pieces, the Melody in F remains notorious in its popularity.


Helena Rubinstein
born in Krakow (now in Poland), on December 25, 1870, the oldest of eight children of Augusta (Gitel Szeindel nee SILBERFELD ) and Naftali Herz (Horace) Rubinstein. She briefly studied medicine in Switzerland and immigrated to Australia in 1902. She noticed that the Australian women had rough reddish faces that required cosmetic attention. Rubinstein opened a modest shop in Melbourne where she dispensed her "Creme Valaze" and instructed women individually on how to care for their skin. She worked long hours and her shop prospered. In 1908, her sister Ceska joined her and took over the management of the shop as she went to London with a $ 100,000 to start what would become an international organization. She met Edward Titus, an American journalist in London, and they were married in 1908. They had two sons, Roy, in 1908, and Horace in 1912. They lived in Paris and when World War I started, they moved back to the United States. She opened beauty salons throughout the country where her skin care and her creams were in demand. The department stores were clamoring to sell her products. Rubinstein was a brilliant innovator in developing her business so that it required routines and women. She trained sales people to teach women skin care and devised a diet plan for beauty. She inaugurated a "Day of Beauty" in her salons which became an instant success. She understood and appreciated the value of advertising and she made full use of it in developing her business. She divorced her husband in 1937 after a shaky marriage for the past ten years. She married Prince Artchil Gourielli-Tchkonia. a Georgian prince twenty years her junior, in 1938. She developed a line of male cosmetics which bore his name. He died in 1956 and her son, Horace, died two years later. Rubinstein was very much concerned and interested in the welfare of Israel. She was very generous with monetary contributions. She founded the Helena Rubinstein Pavilion of Contemporary Art in Tel Aviv where her collection of miniature rooms is housed. The Helena Rubinstein Foundation, created in 1953, provided the necessary funds to organizations concerned with health, medical research and rehabilitation. The Foundation also supported the American Israel Cultural Foundation and awarded scholarships to Israelis. Rubinstein hated small talk and was very frugal. She carried a bag lunch to work with her although she was a very, wealthy woman with over millions of dollars worth of the masters in art and sculpture. Despite her frugality, she bought her clothes from the top fashion designers in the industry. Her top executives in the business were relatives as she was very family oriented. In 1959, she went to Moscow where she officially represented the cosmetic industry in the United States at the American National Exhibition. Helena Rubinstein was always involved with her organization and even when her health was failing, she carried on from her sick bed. She died in New York City on April 1, 1965. Her philanthropy, material support for Israel and her enhancement of women looking and feeling more beautiful will long be remembered. This is one of the 150 illustrated true stories of American heroism included in Jewish Heroes & Heroines of America : 150 True Stories of American Jewish Heroism, © 1996, written by Seymour "Sy" Brody of Delray Beach, Florida, illustrated by Art Seiden of Woodmere, New York, and published by Lifetime Books, Inc., Hollywood, FL. Source: Jewish Heroes and Heroines in America.
From Helenas' family tree;

Zalel (Sale) SILBERFELD 1816
| ! | m:Rywka SCHIFF 1811-12 (Szai + Chaia FRENKEL)
| ! | ! married Feb 18, 1834 #12
| ! | !x Schaja SILBERFELD Feb 6, 1835 #151 - 1836 #179
| ! | !x Lazar SILBERFELD Feb 22, 1836 #66 - 1837 #177
| ! | !? unnamed SILBERFELD Jan 5, 1838 #9
| ! | !x Baruch Mojzesz SILBERFELD Dec 19, 1838 (1839 #2)
| ! | ! m:Hanna Reisel PITZELE May 1, 1839 #232 (Jakob Szymon + Tylle BONAT)
| ! | ! married Sep 27, 1860 #344
| ! | !x Jozef Hirsch SILBERFELD Dec 17, 1840 #523
| ! | ! m:Sali CEMBICER?? c1849 Krakow
| ! | !x Wolff Berl SILBERFELD Nov 3, 1842 #480
| ! | ! m:Hanna SILBERFELD Jun 22, 1839 #304
| ! | ! |o Eva SILBERFELD c1869 Krakow - 1947 Australia
| ! | ! |o Gitel Witte SILBERFELD 1871 #290/#586
| ! | ! | M:Dawid Leib RAKOWER 1872 #758
| ! | ! | married 1893 #145
| ! | ! |x Jechiel Schachne SILBERFELD 1873 #3 - Feb 5, 1888 #37
| ! | ! |x Baruch SILBERFELD Jan 12, 1874 #107 - Jul 27, 1937 Amsterdam
| ! | !o Gitel Szeindel SILBERFELD Aug 11, 1844 #426
| ! | ! M:Naftali Herz RUBINSTEIN b. Dukla
| ! | ! | bann 1902 #126
| ! | ! |o Helena RUBINSTEIN ??Dec 25, 1870 Krakow - Apr 1, 1965 NYC
| ! | ! | M:Edward Morganbesser TITUS
| ! | ! | ! married Jun 7, 1908, Sydney, Australia
| ! | ! | !x Roy Valentine TITUS Dec 12, 1909, London - Apr 16, 1989 NYC
| ! | ! | !x Horace TITUS c1912, London - Apr 1958 NYC
| ! | ! | M:Prince Artchil GOURIELLI-TCHKONIA Feb 18, 1895, Georgia, Russia - Nov 21, 1955 NYC
| ! | ! | married 1937 NYC
| ! | ! |o Rachel RUBINSTEIN Dec 13, 1874 (1875 #56)
| ! | ! | M:Jochene OPPENHEIM
| ! | ! | ! bann 1903 #208
| ! | ! | !o Giselle OPPENHEIM c1900
| ! | ! |x Wolf Ber RUBINSTEIN Apr 18, 1876 #677
| ! | ! |x Hersz Dawid RUBINSTEIN Jul 1877 #503 - Oct 27, 1877 #467
| ! | ! |x Aron RUBINSTEIN Oct 27, 1878 #704 - May 31, 1884 #243
| ! | ! |o Rywka RUBINSTEIN Oct 28, 1879 #768
| ! | ! | M:Mojzesz Dawid KOLIN
| ! | ! | ! bann 1904 #220
| ! | ! | !x Henry KOLIN ??c1898 NY
| ! | ! | !o Mala KOLIN ?Dec 31, 1905 Krakow - Jul 22, 1999 NYC
| ! | ! | !x Oscar KOLIN ?Feb 3, 1908 NYC - Nov 25, 1995 NYC
| ! | ! | !o Rachel KOLIN ?May 28, 1910 NYC - Sep 18, 1989 Israel
| ! | ! |x Abraham RUBINSTEIN Dec 21, 1880 #787 - Jul 13, 1881 #389
| ! | ! |o Sara RUBINSTEIN Feb 12, 1882 #100
| ! | ! |o Cyperla RUBINSTEIN Dec 21, 1883 #807
| ! | ! |o Ester RUBINSTEIN Feb 14, 1886 #119
| ! | ! | M:Max MICHELSON
| ! | !o Rachel Feigel/Rozalia SILBERFELD Jun 1, 1846 - 1918
| ! | ! M:Mojzesz/Maurycy BECKMANN Nov 15, 1843 #539 (Berl + Sussel)
| ! | ! | married Jan 14, 1883 #12
| ! | !x Izaiasz/Szaia SILBERFELD Mar 7, 1848 #79 - 1850 #159
| ! | !x Szaje Heschel SILBERFELD 1850 #336
| ! | !o Raicza (Reizel) SILBERFELD 1851 #405 - 1918
| ! | ! M:Markus RUBINSTEIN
| ! | ! |o Rywka RUBINSTEIN Mar 12, 1881 #138
| ! | ! |o Sara RUBINSTEIN Jun 17, 1882 #414
| ! | ! |x Wolf Beer RUBINSTEIN Mar 9, 1884 #174
| ! | ! |x Dawid RUBINSTEIN Mar 5, 1886 #181
| ! | ! |x Eizyk Jakob RUBINSTEIN Oct 8, 1887 #698
| ! | !o Chaja Gele SILBERFELD - 1941 Holland
| ! | !x Leibel SILBERFELD Nov 29, 1852 #539
| ! | !o Braindel SILBERFELD Apr 11, 1854 #198
| ! | !o Eva SILBERFELD c1855
| ! | !x Arje Leib SILBERFELD c1856
| ! | !x Jakob Herz SILBERFELD c1858 - 1913 NY/Antwerp?
| ! | ! m:Caroline WEINER
| ! | ! |o Regina SILBERFELD Sep 28, 1890 Melbourne - Mar 1988 Nevada
| ! | ! | M:Aron (Arthur) SILBERFELD ?Apr 29, 1876 Krakow - 1938 NYC
| ! | !o Berta SILBERFELD c1866
| ! | !x Dawid SILBERFELD ?1871 #618
| ! | ! M:Leibisch SPLITTER - 1941 Holland (Izak Majer + Rifka)
| ! | ! bann 1903 #136
| !


Ariel Rubinstein is a professor at the School of Economics of Tel Aviv University and at the Department of Economics of Princeton University, and a winner of the "Pras Israel" (Israel Prize) 2002 for his achievements in the field of economics. http://arielrubinstein.tau.ac.il
Democracy, obedience and refusal - by Ariel Rubenstein 21/01/2004

The Jewish ethos, to the best of my knowledge, does not include reverence for obedience to human beings. Our ethos, like that of many other peoples, I think, is full of heroes who refused to obey. How would you relate to a new hero of Israel who sees evil and injustice, but nevertheless continues to obey because this is the will of the majority?
March 12, 2002, Hertzelia, May 19, 2002, Tel Aviv.
The lecture was delivered in Hebrew and has been translated by Ira Moskowitz.
A few words about democracy----
 Sometimes we confuse the spirit of democracy with its procedural aspects. To my mind, democracy is an approach to making collective decisions aimed at finding the middle ground, honestly and with mutual respect, that reflects the wishes and perspectives of the individuals in a society in which the vast majority accept for themselves a common fate, mutual commitment and constitution -- not necessarily a legal one, but, more importantly, a cultural one. A democratic procedure is a mechanism aimed at realizing a minimal threshold of the spirit of democracy. Of course, no mechanism can guarantee that a society's actions will be democratic is spirit. There is no guarantee that a majority of people will not decide -- in a legal and procedurally correct manner -- to blatantly violate what others hold sacred. All in all, Israel maintains democratic procedures. But I have doubts about its democratic spirit. There is, of course, the case of Israel's non-Jewish citizens, who have been systematically deprived for over 50 years, the proper result of a democratic procedure that has perhaps expressed the wishes of the overwhelming majority of Israelis. In the religious-secular conflict, particularly during recent years, the two sides (including the secular side) have tried to impose their wishes through the democratic mechanism, without granting appropriate legitimacy to the cultural constitution of the State of Israel. In 1982, we embarked on a war of choice despite the fact that the spirit of democracy demands that this kind of war be waged only if it is backed by a nearly unanimous consensus. This is because a war initiated by the majority requires the minority to kill and be killed. And, most relevant to our discussion here, is my view that the majority -- and certainly not the minority -- has no right to obligate us all to be full partners in ruling over another people for 35 years. The cultural constitution of the State of Israel specifies that it is a Jewish state. Personally, I am a proud son of the Jewish people and would like my children to live only in a Jewish state. For me, and for many of us, being Jewish does not mean being religious. We are driven by perhaps a biological instinct of continuity. I feel obligated toward the Jewish tradition and the national ethos, as we all experience it. I am here as a response to my wish to live with my people amidst a feeling of continuity, identity and belief that we have many things in common that I would like to share. The Jewish ethos, to the best of my knowledge, does not include occupation. On the contrary, it leads me to identify with those suffering under occupation and to feel disdain toward the occupier and oppressor, even when the occupier and oppressor is me. Our cultural constitution does not give us the right to be a people who occupy another people against their will -- and for such a long period of time. It is important to clearly emphasize that for many of us this is a fundamental principle that we relate to in exactly the same way as a religious Jew relates to the basic prohibitions of Jewish law. No procedural democratic decision, even if made by a large majority, can take away the right of a religious Jew to maintain his faith and his notion of what it means to be Jewish. In the same way, no procedural decision, even if made by an absolute majority, can force us to be occupiers. There was a time when we deluded ourselves into thinking that the territories were essential for our security and constituted a bargaining chip for peace and all sorts of other ridiculous things. It's difficult to understand now how reasonable people like us once believed these things. After 35 years, the only choice we can really make is whether or not to continue to rule over another people. As one of the signatories to the ``New Officers' letter'' said, ``Ruling over another people is not an option for the Jewish people.''The Jewish existence requires putting an immediate and unilateral end to ruling over another people, regardless of any terror, ceasefire, political implications, and chances for peace. I would choose this option even if I were convinced that the result of such a withdrawal would increase the personal risk against our lives. I am aware that there are those who have similar thoughts, but draw opposite conclusions. To many of these, I only feel the need to say, ``Look, I'm a thoroughly secular person, but I value the great importance of the Jewish people's continuity in its religious tradition as well. Thus, I agree with you that the State of Israel must also preserve its Jewish character, even when this entails religious aspects that contradict my personal lifestyle. But I expect that you will also understand that I also have things pertaining to my Jewishness that I cannot give up.'' And if the religious Jewish public and the national secular public, to which I belong, do not agree with this cultural constitution, no parliament or court is capable of completing this work. This is not an absolute limit of democracy, but rather of Jewish society in general. Doesn't a democratic society require obedience? The Jewish ethos, to the best of my knowledge, does not include reverence for obedience to human beings. Our ethos, like that of many other peoples, I think, is full of heroes who refused to obey. How would you relate to a new hero of Israel who sees evil and injustice, but nevertheless continues to obey because this is the will of the majority? It seems to me that I have even heard advocates of obedience express admiration -- perhaps justifiably so -- toward a certain general because he knew when not to obey commands. We have a small mix-up here between the obligation to obey something I reject and the requirements of ``responsibility'' and solidarity that underlie our cultural constitution. You don't have to be a soldier in the Gaza Strip to share this responsibility. All of us are responsible for what is happening here and there, regardless of whether we serve or refuse to serve in the armed forces exercising Israeli rule. Unwillingness to revere obedience is not equivalent to irresponsibility or anarchy. I don't honor the obligation to obey, but, of course, I believe in responsibility. And, if I might add, the obligation of responsibility is what is under threat here. Thus, for example, we don't care and don't do a thing while knowing that more than 10 percent of breadwinners in Israel return home from a day of work without a minimum wage or minimal social benefits. Am I in favor of refusal? I don't feel that I have any right to say anything to those who must decide between the dictates of their conscience and their obligation toward their friends and the unpleasant experience of sitting in prison. I've only twice been confronted with this dilemma. During my regular army service (1970), I found myself participating in a search from one ramshackle home to another in a refugee camp in the Gaza Strip. We went in, searched, and rummaged through the few belongings we found. One woman looked at us with a proud and scorn full _expression. So, in response, we went back and trashed her house. I felt no dilemma. I went back and trashed. I tell this unimportant story and understand how much the little animal lurks also in me. And nine years ago, opposite Dehaisheh, when my views were already different. I didn't refuse to serve in the occupation. I thought about it. I wanted to see once how it looked from the inside. I was afraid of the attention and the hassle of a trial and prison. I had other things in mind. At that time, I refused to take charge of Palestinian prisoners. This didn't bother anyone. In any case, they were most interested in finding someone to patrol the road at night and this was ``okay'' because it was meant to save lives. All in all, I arranged things for myself so that somehow I would avoid the difficult questions. I have no right to say a word about refusal. The only thing that I can say is that I regard this group -- called ``refuseniks'', but whom I would call ``the Neturei Karta of the Jewish conscience '' -- as the heroes of Israeli society in 2002. Not only them, but also the young people who are sacrificing their worlds to take command responsibilities and confront moral dilemmas, who are serving in the IDF not out of an obligation to follow orders or because of a democratic decision, but rather amidst a daily internal struggle between what is permissible and prohibited, between the demands of reality and the raising of a black flag. I admire both of these groups. On the other hand, ``I don't admire'' (to put it mildly) those who rule over another people because ``they were told'' to do so, or those who do not see any problem in this. But, Israel's main problem in 2002 is not a refusal to serve in the occupying forces, but rather the danger that many of us will reach the conclusion that we refuse to bear the responsibility for what goes on here. We are all partners, whether we like it or not, in ruling over the territories and we all have the right to ask whether we want to be a part of this. A refusal to be a part of this society is certainly most legitimate from a legal perspective. And no democratic law can prevent this type of refusal. While the current refusal derives from a feeling of concern, responsibility and readiness to bear an oversized share of the burden, this other type of refusal, which is ostensibly more legitimate, is actually more threatening. I can say to myself that I personally will remain here, no matter what, and at best I'll even try here and there to influence others to stop this terrible thing. I feel fully entitled to say to my children, aged 16 and 9, that their fate is to be here even if this state faces horrible existential dangers. And you don't need special connections with the head of the Shin Bet to imagine that it is very possible that during their lifetimes they may face more terrible scenarios than those we have experienced. But, woefully, I tell myself that I have no way to explain to them that they must tie their lives to a pseudo-Jewish state that is determined to continue ruling over millions of other people, a state that has contempt for the very history that established it. Even if they accept the obligation to a state that sends them to rule over millions of another people, they and their friends will still have the right to refuse to be part of this. Personally, the thought that they, and those like them, are liable to choose not to be here scares me to tears.

Mordecai RUBINSTEIN Died: Zolkiew

Salomon RUBINSTEIN Spouse: Gittel SCHIFF

1. David Zvi RUBINSTEIN Spouse: Pesel HOROWITZ

Born: 1844, Zolkiew
Died: Y
Spouse: ? KAHANE
Spouse: Reizel SILBERFELD
Born: 1848, Cracow
Died: 1918

David Zvi RUBINSTEIN (Children: Rivke (Regina) RUBINSTEIN , 
Mordechai (Mark) RUBINSTEIN  ,Baruch RUBINSTEIN Died: 1974, Israel )
Wolf Ber RUBINSTEIN Died: Cracow.  
Isaac RUBINSTEIN Born: 1888. Died: 1944. Spouse: Dreizel FRANKEL Children:Simon RUBINSTEIN , Rivke RUBINSTEIN  
2. Aryey Lieb RUBINSTEIN children;Simha Rubinstein, Rebecca Rubinstein,
Horace Naftali Hirsch RUBINSTEIN Spouse: Gitel Augusta SILBERFELD Born: Caracow Married: Abt 1865, Krakow, Children: Helena RUBINSTEIN Born: 25 Dec 1870, Cracow. Married: 1938, New York, N Y. Died: 1 Apr 1965, New York City.

Roy TITUS Born: 1909, Londres. Died: Y. Children: Helena TITUS, Living.  
Roy Valentine TITUS Born: 12 Dec 1909, London. Married: Abt 1955. Died: 18 Apr 1989, New York City. Spouse: Marie BEHR Born: Abt 1912 Married: Abt 1940, New York, Ny Died: 1956 Children: Helena TITUS, Living.  
Horace TITUS Born: 1912, London, England. Died: Apr 1958, New York, Ny.

Spouse: Evelyn SCHMETKA, Living Children: Toby TITUS, Living.  Barry TITUS, Living.  

Pauline RUBINSTEIN Born: Abt 1874, Krakow, Austria. Married: Abt 1890. Died: Paris, France. Children: Marcelle HIRSCHBERG Born: Abt 1892. Married: Abt 1915.  
Rachel RUBINSTEIN Born: 13 Dec 1874, Krakow, Austria. Died: Y.  
Regina RUBINSTEIN Born: Abt 1876, Cracow. Married: Abt 1897. Died: Y.
Leon KOLIN  
Henry KOLIN Born: Abt 1898. Married: Abt 1920, New York, Ny. Died: Toronto, Canada.
Mala KOLIN Born: 31 Dec 1905, Cracow. Died: 22 Jul 1999, New York City.  
Oscar KOLIN Born: 3 Feb 1908, New York, N Y. Married: Abt 1930. Died: 25 Nov 1995, Ny Hospital, Ny.
Rachel KOLIN Born: 28 May 1910, New York, N Y. Married: Abt 1932. Died: 18 Sep 1989, Kibbutz, Israel. Spouse: Chaim Langzaam SHALEV, Children:
Uri SHALEV, Living.
Carmi SHALEV, Living.  
Nurit SHALEV, Living. Gisele OPPENHEIM Born: Abt 1900. Married: Abt 1920.  
Wolf Ber RUBINSTEIN Born: 1876, Krakow, Austria. Died: Y.  
Stella RUBINSTEIN Born: Abt 1877, Krakow ( Austria). Married: Abt 1899. Died: Y.
Herz David RUBINSTEIN Born: 1877. Died: Y.  
Aron RUBINSTEIN Born: 1878, Krakow, Austria. Died: Y.  
Rifka RUBINSTEIN Born: 1879, Krakow, Austria. Died: Y.  
Abraham RUBINSTEIN Born: 1880, Krakow, Austria. Died: Y.  
Sara RUBINSTEIN Born: 12 Feb 1882, Cracow. Died: Y.  
Cecilia (Ceska) RUBINSTEIN Born: 21 Dec 1883, House #2 Ul. Szo, Krakow, Austria. Married: Abt 1900. Died: Abt 1967, London, England.  
Manka RUBINSTEIN Born: 1885, Krakow, Austria. Married: Abt 1895. Spouse: Bernard IMMERDAULER Born: Abt 1875, Vienna ( ?)Married: Abt 1897, Vienna, Austria ( ?)Children: John BERNARD Born: Abt 1899. daughter; Patricia BERNARD, Living Spouse: Fred DE_LAURA
Erna (Ester) RUBINSTEIN Born: 14 Feb 1886, House #18 Ul. Sz, Krakow, Austria. Married: Abt 1905. Spouse: Max MICHELSON

3. Sarah Leah RUBINSTEIN Spouse: Isaiah Abraham BUBER Died: 1870, Lvov ( Ukraine Children: Simha BUBER, Moses BUBER , Salomon BUBER Born: 2 Feb 1827, Lyon. Died: 1907. Children: Kalman BUBER Children:
Nelly BUBER  , Martin BUBER Born: 8 Feb 1878. Died: 14 Jun 1965. Spouse: Paula WRINKLER Died: 1958 Children:Rafael BUBER, Eva BUBER