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Tzemach Feldstein

Dr. Feldstein around 1937 r.
Tzemach Feldstein (Feldstein Cemach; Lithuanian: Feldsteinas, 30 December 1884-29 December 1944 [1]) was an educator and Zionist activist and Hebrew Lithuanian Jew. Director of the Hebrew Real Gymnasium in Kaunas for most of its operations.
Tzemach/ Cemach Ben Zvi (Russian: Semyon Grigorovic') Feldstein was born in December 1884 in the town of Niistot Shaki (N ') in western Russia (Lithuania), [2] the eldest of five children (two boys and three girls) of Malka Leah and Zvi, a pious Jewish merchant. Studied in several schools, and graduated from high school in the city of Konigsberg in East Prussia, Germany. Studied history and philosophy at the University of Berlin, Germany, followed by the University of Bern, Switzerland, and received a doctoral degree. Dissertation, written under the guidance of Ludwig Stein, filed in November 1907, was about the foundations of ethics of Hermann Cohen (Cohens Begründung der Ethik; It was published in Breslau in 1914). During his studies in Bern he met Elke Freida Bose'vsky, which was towards the end of his medical studies there. They were married  in 1910, while she was giving up the medical title, and the two went to the city of Warsaw, where he was a teacher at the Jewish High School of Magnus Krinsky and he spread Jewish culture. The couple were the parents of three: Lyuba (1911), Esther (1914) and Joshua (1921).

In Tra"g -1913 Kalisz he was invited to serve as the first director of the Jewish Gymnasium was founded in the city. During the first World War he was in the city of Minsk, where he founded and managed a private high school. His wife taught in mathematics and Russian literature.

After the war and the establishment of the first Lithuanian Republic he returned to Lithuania and from -1921 he served as Bwilkovisk Hebrew Gymnasium (founded in 1919), [3] which ordered all the subjects in Hebrew, Spanish accent (as received earlier settlement in Eretz Israel). In 1922 called the de facto capital, Kaunas, to replace Dr. Shalom Yona Tsrna Hebrew Real Gymnasium manager founded by Rabbi Dr. Yosef Tzvi Carlebach. Feldstein served as his role as high school until its closure with the Soviet invasion in 1940 (for most of its activities). Gymnasium, which was a private institution, was the largest Jewish educational institutions in Lithuania. Gymnasium lectured on topics from the world literature (in Hebrew translation) and general history. Jacob Ioselit student, who later became the Hebrew educator in the United States, wrote later:

He is gifted with great flair, beautifully cut speech - nice and clear. Could give students broad knowledge and clear easy method, and PR comfortable. As he read his lectures the Divine Presence rested on the department. He could draw and describe the time and place where the spirit of life that you think you are living and working in spoken and soaked atmosphere. Feeling that he enjoyed making and students enjoy hearing. He was a man. He could bring the students to the Torah and in fact, Lhlhibm and buy their hearts. He was a friend, father and mentor to his students. [4]

Kovno, Feldstein

Cemach Feldstein, Nathan Goren Tchernikhowsky Kaunas, probably in 1927

The Gymnasium was purely Hebrew: All classes were conducted in Hebrew, except for Lithuanian studies (language, literature, history), but the students among themselves would speak Yiddish - the language spoken by the Jews in Eastern Europe. According to his student Ioselit, Feldstein asked students to speak Hebrew well outside the school, and they tried to follow his request. [5]

The rented buildings of the school (boys and  girls) were not comfortable, small classrooms and crowded. Against this background, Feldstein visited at the end of 1928 the United States, with the approval of the Lithuanian Ministry of Education, to raise funds for Hebrew schools in Lithuania (including schools 'tarbut/ culture'), and thus responsible for financing for a new home for his Gymnasium. He enlisted to his aid the poet Tchernikhowsky, for a fair price and they traveled to the United States for several months. [6] with donations, including Jewish philanthropist - an American born in Lithuania, and a loan from the Treasury Lithuanian, built in the early 30s a new building and equipped for Gymnasium.

Alongside his work as director, Feldstein was active in the Zionist movement and the Hebrew culture and education activist. Was a member of the Zionist Center (General Zionists) and a member of the Central Committee of the Zionist Hebrew education network "culture" in Lithuania. He was active in the historical society - in Kaunas ethnographic, devoted his energy and his own money folk Kaunas University. He was a polyglot who spoke regularly Hebrew, Yiddish, German, Russian, English and Lithuanian, and could speak both French and Polish. Was a brilliant speaker and participated in the Jewish press. Published articles pedagogical Hed Lithuania "and the Hebrew Teachers Association journal Lithuania" Trails of education. " In 1935 he visited the land of Israel, and the daily published an official visit to Lithuania Zionist Jews "Di Yiddishe Stimme" ("Jewish vote).

In the summer of 1940, with the establishment of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic as one of the republics of the Soviet Union following the Soviet occupation, moved to the gymnasium, at the request of the authorities, to teach Yiddish. [7] A short time later,Aorgniztzih of Jewish educational institutions in Kaunas, suspended him from his job at the high school.
He moved with his wife to the new capital of Lithuania, Vilnius, where  most of her relatives lived. Feldstein was hired at the real high school as a Russian teacher in Vilnius Yiddish founded and directed Dr. Leib Turbowicz, husband of Nadia, his wife's sister. Initially he lived with the family of her niece (later exiled to Siberia, survived and emigrated to the United States).

During the Holocaust, the Nazi occupation in the summer of 1941 and the establishment of the Vilna ghetto,  Feldstein was deported  there with other Jews. He served as deputy director in the Department of Culture of the Judenrat under director Dr. Leo Bernstein. Was postmaster in. Though given in desperation even there to be a lecturer and active cultural life - he gave lectures in philosophy and history and encouraged community members hoping for better days. [8] He wrote memoirs, edited the official organ of the Vilna Ghetto, "reports the Ghetto", translated into Hebrew the "Aida" and wrote literary essays in Hebrew and Yiddish Bialik, YL Peretz, one people and others. [9]
Later marched with many other ghetto labor camp Kiwioli (Kivioli) in Estonia. At this point he was very weak and could not work, but with a few appreciative supported it managed to get out of selections for some time - what. [10] then transferred to Berg - Dautmergen (Schömberg-Dautmergen) (g) in southern Germany, where died in December 1944. [11]

His youngest son, Joshua Feldstein, wrote later that "he was an excellent teacher, role model, teacher, mentor and consultant, he has inspired me, as many students over the years., He and my mother instilled in their children morals and high values, respect for every person, tolerance , the importance of knowledge and education, like social, communication skills, love of nature, music, literature, poetry, the commitment to help those in need, and above all pride in being a Jew, eternal hope for a better future and a belief in God ". [12]

Kovno, Feldstein

Feldstein and his wife fania
His eldest son, Dr. Lev (Lyuba) Feldstein, received his MD from the University of Liege, Belgium, and was a young surgeon well known in Kaunas. Married Sarah, youngest daughter of Esther Arronovsky, a successful businesswoman. They perished. [13 ] only daughter, Dr. Ada candle, survived. she was hidden by the Catholic sisters who worked as domestic servants of the family, who raised her. Later she became a doctor like her father. [14]

Daughter Esther (Tosia) studied civil engineering in London. In the 30s she went with her husband to build roads Sumatra. Survived the World War II in Japanese concentration camp. After the war, she divorced and married a Belgian diplomat. Died in October 1959.

His youngest son, Joshua Feldstein (later Professor Joshua Fldstin, Joshua Feldstein), graduated in 1938, real Gymnasium. A year later he began his studies at the School of Engineering at the University of Lithuania, and a year later went to the United States to study agricultural science Bdoilston (N '), Pennsylvania, where he began an academic career and reached as president of Delaware Valley College (N').

Bat - Esther's daughter, wife's sister, was a Jewish writer - American Esther Haotzig (N '). Widow, Walter Haotzig (N '), is a concert pianist.
Read more

    Perez Jacob Ioselit, Dr. Plant Fdlstein fourteenth, past Hon (Tsl"z), 280-282.

    Esther Hautzig, 'Ada and Eddy,' in: Remember Who You Are: Stories About Being Jewish, 1st paperback ed., Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society, 2000, pp. 47-55.
    Joshua Feldstein, dr. Zemach Feldstein: Educator: Director Hebrew Reale Gymnasia Kovno, Lithuania, 'Gahelet, March 2008, 54-55. (The author is the son of Feldstein)

External links
Foundation projects
Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons Images and media: Plant Feldstein

    'Feldstein, Plant Ben Zvi, in: Dov Lipetz (System Center), Nathan Goren [and others] (a), Lithuanian Jewry, Volume III, Book I: "People", New York: school, following the Six, p 210 Column 2 (Book of Remembrance Lithuanian community, New York City directory, photo 1408)
    David - Hirsch Raskas (Tzogagriit fasting Druck), "Fast Mamant" Dr. Plant Faldsteins Aditarieln no Vilner Geto, 1942-1943, YIVO Bletter 3 (1997) 114-205, on HebrewBooks (Yiddish)


    ^ Birth and death dates exact: Birth by Perez Jacob Ioselit, Dr. Plant Fdlstein fourteenth, past Hon (Tsl"z), 280 (list of teachers in Kaunas, 1921-1941 (on job applications), site Eilat Gordin Levitan: 31 December) Death from entry from the list of synonyms perished in Berg - Dautmergen, Central Database of Shoah Victims' Names, Yad Vashem.
    ^ According to the 'Feldstein, Plant Ben Zvi, in: Dov Lipetz (Central System), gave Goren [and others] (a), Lithuanian Jewry, Volume III, Book I: "People", New York: school, following the Six, page 210 column 2), and from the list of teachers in Kaunas, 1921-1941 (on job applications), site of Eilat Gordin Levitan. according Ioselit, plant Fdlstein (Tsl"z), 280 , was born in Kibert (N ').
    ^ M. The. Mendelssohn - Miskotz, Hebrew Gymnasium Bwilkovisk ', in: Dov Lipetz, gave Goren [and others] (eds.), Lithuanian Jewry, Volume II (New York Tsl"b), pp. 151 (Book of Remembrance Community of Lithuania, the New York City Library , Photo 873).
    ^ Peretz Jacob Ioselit, Dr. Plant Fdlstein fourteenth, past Hon (Tsl"z), 281.
    ^ Ioselit, plant Feldstein, pp. 281-282. He said, "Overnight the request and demand effect and ringing Hebrew language heard in all streets of Kaunas by students Hgmansion., And interesting, while there. Ussishkin visited Lithuania in their twenties and walking the streets of Kaunas, said: Is this Kaunas of Lithuania, no! That is Kaunas of Tel - Aviv ... " (P. 282).
    ^ Joseph Klausner, Tchernikhowsky: Man and Poet, Jerusalem: Hebrew Foundation on the - where Sir Montague Burton together? Company expenses - books by the Hebrew University, Tashaz, p 190; Abraham carefree, Tchernikhowsky: monograph, Tel Aviv : KM, 1984, pp. 246.
    ^ Berel Cohen, Jewish education independent Lithuania, in his book: Yiddish Stat, Statlac on Darafisha Biz planted no settlements in 1918: Histaris - Biagrafisha Skytzas, New York 1991, pp. 743, on HebrewBooks (also reprinted in: Zvi Sharfstein (ed.), Education and Jewish culture in Europe between the two world wars, New York: Anchor, XX, p 168).
    ^ Ioselit, plant Feldstein, 282.
    ^ Mayer Dworzecki, spiritual life in the Vilna ghetto, in: Gideon Rafael Ben - Michael (ed.), Journal Forum commemorating the Holocaust 18: Holocaust Jewish human spirit (of December, December 2007), 27, 39, 41 -42.
    ^ Israel Kaplan, deportations Latvia and Estonia ', in: Dov Lipetz and gave Goren (eds.), Lithuanian Jewry, Volume IV: "The Holocaust 1941-1945," Tel Aviv: book, Tshm"d, pp. 385 (Book of Remembrance community Lithuania, New York City directory, photo 2103).
    ^ Record from the list of synonyms perished in Berg - Dautmergen, Central Database of Shoah Victims' Names, Yad Vashem.
    ^ Joshua Feldstein, dr. Zemach Feldstein: Educator: Director Hebrew Reale Gymnasia Kovno, Lithuania, 'Gahelet, March 2008, 55.
    ^ Note Feldstein, Sarah Feldstein to Arronovsky: Pages filled daughter, Ada Levner, Central Database of Shoah Victims' Names, Yad Vashem.
    ^ Story see: Ada Feldstein-Levner, 'The Prayer of an Innocent Girl,' in: S. Abramovich and Y. Zilberg (Eds.), Smuggled in Potato Sacks: Fifty Stories of the Hidden Children of the Kaunas Ghetto, London: Vallentine Mitchell, 2011, pp. 215-218.

Kovno, Feldstein