The city of Krakow (Cracow) is in southern Poland. Before 1918, it was the seat of the Austrian province of Galicia. In 1939 60,000 Jews resided in Krakow, almost one-quarter of a total population of about 250,000. The German army occupied Krakow in the first week of September 1939. Persecution of the Jews began immediately and intensified after the Germans declared Krakow the capital of the Generalgouvernement, that area of Poland which Germany did not annex directly to its eastern provinces. In the city, Wawel Castle became the residence of Nazi lawyer Hans Frank, who had been appointed Governor General of Poland. Montelupich prison became a German Security Police prison. For the rest go to;


Click on Photos to Enlarge
#krkw-1: A workers' demonstration in Krakow in July 1936. Members of the Freiheit and Po'alei Zion movements took part in the demonstration. In the photo: Avraham "Laban" Leibowicz (lower right foreground, with armband), keeping order among the marchers.
#krkw-2: Krakow, beside the Gruenwald monument. In the photo: Avraham "Laban" Leibowicz (center), with Avraham Zdranowski and Aharon Schmutzer. Photographed in 1937.
#krkw-3: Members of a local chapter of the Freiheit youth movement in Krakow. Those seated in the front row hold a banner, on which is written in Hebrew: Dror in Western Galicia - Krakow. In the photo: Adek Golowner
#krkw-4: A camp of the Freiheit youth movement near Krakow, March, 1938.
#krkw-5: Aharon - Dolek and Rivka Sniper - Liebeskind, of the Akiva Zionist youth movement, with their parents and Aharon's sister Krakow, 1940

#krkw-6: The poet Chaim - Nachman Bialik during a visit to Krakow.

#krkw-7: Ultra - Orthodox Jews in Krakow in 1931.
#krkw-8: German officers checking the documents of Jews seated in a carriage filled with their belongings, at the time when the Jews were moving into the Krakow ghetto.
#krkw-9: Wagons loaded with furniture and other objects, on their way to the Krakow ghetto. Two of the people walking beside the wagons are wearing armbands.
#krkw-11: The Cafe Cyganeria on Szpitalna Street in Krakow. This was a meeting place for Wehrmacht and Gestapo officers, and was attacked by members of Krakow's Jewish underground on December 22, 1942. Eleven Germans were killed and 13 wounded in this action.
#krkw-12: Members of the Jewish underground in the Krakow ghetto, beside underground headquarters. Photographed in 1940. These were members of the Akiva movement. In the photo: Aharon - Dolek Liebeskind (on the right), Ze'ev Mintcheles (second from the right), Rivka Szpiner - Liebeskind (third from the right), Sabina Wulkan (fourth from the right), Minka Liebeskind (fifth from the right), Chana Dreiblatt (fourth from the left), Chana - Hanka Szpricer (third from the left), Shimshon Draenger (second from the left), and Gusta Dawidson - Draenger (on the left).
#krkw-13: Jews praying beside the grave of the Rema (Rabbi Moshe Isserles) in Krakow. Photographed in 1931. The Rema was a renowned rabbi in 16th C. Krakow. A major Krakow synagogue was named for him.
#krkw-14: The town hall building in the Kazimierz quarter of Krakow. Photographed between the two world wars
#krkw-15: On a park bench in Krakow in 1927.
#krkw-16: A rabbi addressing a congregation from a pulpit in Krakow. Photographed between the two world wars
#krkw-17: Members of the  soccer teamR.K.S. (Robotniczy Klub Sportowy [Polish: Workers' Sports Club]). in Krakow. The team included Jewish players. In the photo: Avraham "Laban" Leibowicz (center of the foreground trio).  Leibowicz was later a member of the Akiva Zionist youth movement and the Jewish underground in Krakow.
#krkw-18: The ancient cemetery adjoining the Rema Synagogue in Krakow
#krkw-19: The "Yitzhak" synagogue in Krakow, built in the 17th century. Photographed in the late 20th C.
#krkw-20: The marketplace in the Kazimierz quarter of Krakow in 1936. In the background: the "Alte Shul" [Yiddish: Old Synagogue
#krkw-21: Jews in Krakow in the early 20th century
#krkw-22: The marketplace and town hall building in Krakow. Photographed between the two world wars
#krkw-23: A dormitory room in a boarding school of the "Beis Yaakov" network in Krakow. Photographed in 1936. The "Beis Yaakov"  network of religious schools for girls was organized in post - WWI Poland by the Agudat Israel ultra - Orthodox movement.
#krkw-24: Actors and others who worked in the Jewish theater in Krakow. Many of them perished during the course of the World War.
#krkw-25: Jews in the courtyard beside the synagogue and the school for Jewish deaf - mutes in Krakow.
#krkw-26: A Chassidic dance at a camp for members of the HaShomer ha Dati youth movement in the Krakow area. The camp took place in 1933.


Krakow Cemetery


Krakow Cemetery


Krakow Cemetery


Krakow Cemetery


The book; "The Fighting Chalutz" a news paper writen in the Krakow
ghetto in 1943.
It is the story of Zionist Jewish youth in the Krakow underground
during the war.


olish Aliyah Passport of Fradel Landau and children (Krakow)
for more information about the Passports go to;


Polish Aliyah Passport of  Szaja and Estera Korn (Tymbark/Krakow)http://www.jewishgen.org/Jri-pl/jhi/jri-jhi-aliyah-passport.htm


A policeman of Poland's "Blue Police" inspecting the documents of a Jew in Krakow.


ews hanged on a gallows in the Podgorze quarter of Krakow


German soldiers and an officer entering the Krakow ghetto.


German army men who participated in a roundup of Jews in the
Podgorze quarter of Krakow.


A German soldier in the Krakow ghetto, standing beside the bodies
of Jews laid out in a row.


go to http://www.baral.com/
Steven Baral stevebaral@aol.com wrote; The photographs you are about
to see were collected and edited by my Father, Mr Martin Baral. The
photographs show members of the Baral, Feuer and Ehrlich Families from
Cracow Poland and the vicinity, most of whom perished in the Shoah.
Had it not been for the heroism of my Grandmother, Franka Baral, who
saved 6 children under the most adverse circumstances, I would not be
here today.



The Jewish market Square on Szeroka Street
from the 1930s. At the end of the square you can see the historic home of the Landau family.

Allen Bergman-Toronto


Sitting from Left; Dr. David Bulwa ( 1882- 1942, only his daughter
Eleonora Shein survived), Chaim Hilpershtein, Prof. Hugo Bergman.
Standing behind Chaim Hilpershtein; Dr. Henrik Zilbershtein and Hirsh
Sharar. Picture taken from News Letter of July;
to read the News Letters of the Association of Cracowians in Israel
(published by Lili Haber) go to the bottom of the page. For other
pictures from the News Letters go to "old scenes"


Memorial to the Jews of Krakow


First on the left third row; Mark Patrushka ( now Meir Porat)  and his mother Henka. Second row on the right; Binyamin Zentker. Please getin touch with Meir Porat if you have any information ( for more information go to Association of Cracowians in Israel - News Letters ( #20)  in the bottom of the page


Augusta and Adolf Gross pose with their grandchildren, Marguerite and Jan Enkels


Alfred Shenker, merchant and industrialist (2nd from right on bottom), with the staff of the Pischinger, Perlberger and Shenker Company


Luba and Bolestaw Drobner with their daughter Irena, and Luba's sister, Ida Hirszowicz, Krakow 1913


I. Krieg, a soldier in the Polish army, and his bride on their wedding day.


Members of the Krieg family 1928


The Faust family in Planty Park, 1931


1908 photo of Karola Kupezyk-Kleczanska, Salomon's daughter (1889-1941).


1929, Three children of the Stern family.




Beit Yaakov School


Rabbi Nechemia Kurnitzer


Jewish children in the Krakow ghetto play violins for the cameraman, Sep 1939 - 1940. USHMM Photo Archives (18707), courtesy of Muzeum Historii Fotografii



In front of the synagogue in 1936.


The Alte Shul (old synagogue)


German soldiers at a Krakow vandalized synagogue c 1940.


Jewish using a krakow synagogue as a shelter during the shoah.


General Pilsudski visits a Krakow synagogue.



The view over Podgórze and Cracow from the south.
Photo Les?aw Rzewuski, 1892



Józefa Street. The return from the prayer.
Photo Tadeusz Przypkowski, around 1930.
"On the festive days Kazimierz become quieter and calms down. The Jews dressed in long gaberdines, in hats hemmed with fox fur, walk in the streets. The synagogues get filled with praying people. The Jewish town creates a strange, not devoid of charm, picture..." wrote Karol Estreicher. On the photograph - the group of pious Jews in traditional attires, who return from the religious service.


The flea market in Szeroka Street.
Photo Photographical Agency "?wiatowid", around 1930.
Karol Estreicher in "The guidebook for those visiting the town and its surroundings" (published in 1938) wrote about Kazimierz from those days in that way: " At present Kazimierz is a typical example of a trade ghetto. The living here Jewish people are usually poor. The more rich ones are merchants, the poorer - agents or minor salesmen. The most poor busy themselves with artisanship or selling of junk. [...] On Tuesdays and Fridays the flea market take place in Szeroka Street".
On our photograph there are women with armfuls of clothes designed for selling. Further - the gate leading to the yard next to Remu Synagogue.



Photo Ignacy Krieger, around 1910.
The today's street was marked out when the historical bed of the Vistula River was filled. The Old Vistula was slowly becoming the drying-out, malarial marshes. In 1878 the bed of the Old Vistula started to become filled and at the same time the street was being bricked. The monumental town planing guidelines included the wide lane of greenery with two parallel walking alleys, lines of trees and flower beds as well as two strips of the road. The event took place at the time of Józef Dietl presidency and as soon as in 1879 the street got it present name. The composition, very modern as for those days, remained unchanged until 1970. In that year the route of tramway communication was built there and because of that the lane of greenery was devastated. At present it is the lawn next to the tracks and a few remaining trees.


The view over the Main Market from the outlet of Grodzka street.
Photo Walery Maliszewski, around 1865

-- from;


Mordechai Zeev Schachter was born in Zawiercie in 1888 to Elimelekh and Kroyna ( nee Yezkirowitz). He was a teacher of the Hebrew Mizrachi Tachkemoni  school in Krakow and also a cantor. He married Sheindl nee Datner and had 8 children.

Only his son Yizhak Ben Zeev (nee Schachter) survived the holocaust




Yaakov Leser ( son of Yizhak Hirsh and Leah nee Shwartz)

And Yona ( nee Tonka Bornstein, daughter of Lipman Yom Tov and Mindla Bornstein nee Shtern) September 1946,  Krakow

The parents of Lili Haber ( from the September 2008 Newsletter of the ASSOCIATION OF CRACOWIANS IN ISRAEL)



Kazimierz, 1930s


The Ghetto during the holocaust


Mizrachi school



Henia Karmel and Ilona Karmel were born to a distinguished Jewish family in Krakow. The family, now assimilated into the surrounding culture, came from a prominent line of scholars, poets, and rabbis. The girls were given a top education in standard government schools as well as a Hebrew gymnasium. They spoke Yiddish, Polish, and German, and they read Hebrew and the Western classics as well as contemporary Polish poets.

In 1943, when the sisters were 17 and 20 years old, they were sent to Nazi forced labor camps—first, Skarzysko-Kamienna and then HASAG-Buchenwald—where they wrote...poems, now translated into English...

#krkw-79: Rozlia Rosenfeld of Krakow (papers from the First World War)
#krkw-80: Jewish Krakow by Henryk Halkowski


Zeev Aleksandrowicz's exhibition in Galicia Jewish Museum

Krakow, Poland, Kurtzman, orphanage
Krakow, Poland, Kortzman, Aya


Krakow, Poland, Rabbi Alter David Kurtzman (the submitter's
grandfather) with the staff and the children in an orphanage, 1939.


Krakow, Poland, Marcel Kortzman the submitter with his caregiver
Aya among other children, 1936.

Ritterman, Eintracht, Alexandrowicz, Schermant,Lerner, Lieber, Torczyner, Krakow, Ukraine, Vienna


Arthur Lerner wrote: .My great grandmother Ernestine Lieber Torczyner (1862 - 1904) came from Krakow. Daughter of Yaacov Lieber and Ruchel nee Censor ( other related families from Krakow; Ritterman, Eintracht, Alexandrowicz, Schermant)
http://www.geni.com/people/Ernestine-Marjem-Esther-Torczyner/521828... Her husband was born in Brody, moved briefly to Lemberg (now Lviv) in what is now Ukraine, and then for a time lived in Krakow, before he and my grandmother settled in Vienna in 1890.


Krakow's residents welcome the Soviet liberators in Janaury of 1945


Krakow, Zvi Hersh Bauminger, One of the commanders of Iskra (Spark) fighting organization in Krakow. They fought the Germans by carring out acts of sabotage on German installations in and outside the Ghetto. In March 1943 the Germans broke into the place where he lived. He fired at them and shot himself with his last bullet.




Aaron and Roche (Wasserlauf) Spingarn.   Aaron was the brother of my great-great-grandfather, Peretz.

That's the only picture I have of my second great grandparents. Aaron died before his wife and grown children migrated to Newark..my grandfather was the seventh Aaron Spingarn named for him.
.Rachel Cohen


Little Viktoria Fender (Later Goldman)her parents and older sister in Krakow c 1925



Silberfeld/ Piller family


Krakow after the war ( 1946)


October 1940
Jews at prayer on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) in Cracow, Poland



Rosa (left) was born in Krakow on April 25, 1882.
Sophia (on the right) was born Llata in Krakow on Oct 1, 1878.
They were 2 of the daughters of Hirsch ARONSFRAU & Braindla WEINBERG.


Girls during gymnastics class at the Jewish High School for Economics, 1936. Yad Vashem Photo Archives 8343/6


leaders of Akiva Youth Movement in 1939 from left: Yisrael Parnes, Chaim Karmish, Shimek Dranger, Erna Ragnet, Rania Maler Nichtauser,
Dolek Libskind, Hank Joffe, ?, ?



Yizhak Zvi (Heshek) Lazar was murdered by the Nazis in 1944. He sent the Rosh Hashana card with his picture to his children in Palestine/Israel in 1936.


Dora (sitting) Scheller nee Aleksandrovich was born in Krakow, Poland
in 1883 to
Zeev and Regina. She was a housewife and married to Gustav (sitting on
the right) and had one
daughter. Prior to WWII she lived in Krakow, Poland. During the war
she was in Warszawa, Poland. Dora was murdered/perished in 1943 in
Warszawa, Poland with husband and son in law; Aleksander Anhalt (standing). her
daughter; Dr. Urszula Anhalt (standing ) was born in 1917 in Kraków. In
1944 (age 27) she hid in Warsaw. She was Murdered by the Nazis Just
before the liberation of Warsaw (She escaped and had papers as a non
Jew, an old classmate from Krakow recognized her walking down the
street and reported her to a Nazi who killed her on the spot))


Lazar's soda factory



Jewish school in Krakow 1955


Poet Bialik during a visit to a nursery school in Krakow before the war.



Krakow market before the war


Graduates of the Hebrew gymnasium in Krakow (1937)



Abraham Szaja Gumplowicz
Kraków, Kraków County, Malopolskie, Poland
July 13, 1876


Abraham Szaja Gumplowicz with son Maxmillian



Mania Rosenfeld nee Blumenkranz was born in Krakow, Poland to Leib and Hafcia nee Ohrenstein. She was married Jacob. Prior to WWII she lived in Krakow, Poland. During the war she was in Krakow, Ghetto.

Mania was murdered in the Shoah.

This information is based on a Page of Testimony (displayed on left) submitted by her nephew, a Shoah survivor


Blumenkranz, Leib Blumenkranz, Leib  and his wife Gitl Blumenkranz nee Ohrenstein . They perished in the holocaust.


Rebecca Rakower



Meyer Wolf Suchowolski, husband of Sabine Rakower was born in Krakow in 1902.

He perished on September 25th 1944 in Auschwitz his daughter 
Suzanne  also perished.


The Infeld children


Sukkot in a courtyard in Kraków, 1930s. (YIVO)



Goose market in Kraków. Alois Schönn, 1869. Engraving. (Moldovan Family Collection)


Women praying on Tishah b’Av, a day of fasting in commemoration of the destruction of the First and Second Temples Kraków, 1926. (Archiwum Dokumentacji Mechanicznej, courtesy Jewish Historical Institute, Warsaw)


Simon Samson Drenger

March 21, 1917
Death: November 1943 (26) (was a resistance fighter together with his wife in the Krakow ghetto, Both were killed by the Nazis.)
Son of David Drenger and Lea Dranger
Husband of Gusta Justina Drenger ( also pictured)



Tadeusz Pankiewicz with a woman he saved in the holocaust; Irene Halpern-Cynowicz, during his visit to Israel in February of 1957
Apteka pod Or?em / Muzeum Historyczne Miasta Krakowa



Rabbi Izak Meilech Horowitz 


Rabbi Izak Meilech Horowitz 

August 10, 1894 
Kraków, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland

Submmited by Joel Rosenfeldw



Rabbi Pinchas Eliahu Dembitzer (1849 – 1920) was the son of a Dayan (religious judge), and was also a Dayan himself. He was the author of commentaries to ‘Givat Pinchas’, a work by the American Rabbi, Pinchas Avraham Perl, which were published posthumously in Kraków in 1925 

-Joel Rosenfeld


On the back of the picture of  Adolf Mechner is a date written in ink: “18/6 1877” and the name and address of the photographer printed “Simon Balicer, Krakow, ulica Grodzka No.80


On the back of the picture of  Adolf Mechner is a date written in ink: “18/6 1877” and the name and address of the photographer printed “Simon Balicer, Krakow, ulica Grodzka No.80



Pinchas Volf was born in Krakau, Poland in 1912 to Avraham and Keile nee Buchester. Prior to WWII he lived in Krakow, Poland. During the war he was in Krakow, Poland.

Pinchas was murdered in the Shoah.

This information is based on a Page of Testimony submitted by his cousin, Ester Shif Akerhalt



 Rabbi Menachem Ziemba (1883–1943 Treblinka ) , was a distinguished pre-World War II Rabbi, known as a Talmudic genius and prodigy.

Photo : Rabbi Moshe Greenus’s father-in-law Reb Avroham Yitzchok Twersky along with Rav Menachem Ziemba (d.1943)....murdered !



Rabbi Menachem Ziemba (1883–1943 Treblinka ) , was a distinguished pre-World War II Rabbi, known as a Talmudic genius and prodigy.


Minka Liebeskind ( right ) and Gusta Dawidson - Draenger, members of the Akiva movement and the Jewish underground in the Krakow ghetto , both killed in 1943....:'(

photo : " Liebeskind is on the right. Photographed during a summer camp of the movement in 1938. "


." Helena Mosberg was born in Krakow, Poland in 1923 to Ludwig and Berta nee Blumenkranz. She was single. Prior to WWII she lived in Krakow, Poland. During the war she was in Krakow, Ghetto.

Helena was murdered in the Shoah. 

This information is based on a Page of Testimony submitted by her brother, a Shoah survivor. "



Celia (Tzira) Dresner, Samuel Dresner born in Krakow in 1860


Sara Sali Lebenheim (Nebenzahl)

October 19, 1876
July 07, 1931 (54)
Berlin, Germany
Immediate Family:
Daughter of Lobel Leib Nebenzahl and Lea Nebenzahl
Wife of Michael Lebenheim
Mother of Lucie Tal? Haltrecht (Lebenheim)
Sister of Mindel Nebenzahl; Meier (Majer) Nebenzahl Kaufmann; Baruch Nebenzahl; Ferdynand (Teodor) Nebenzahl; Henry (Heinrich) (Henryk) Moritz Nebenzahl; Rebekka Katzky; Julius Nebenzahl; Bronia Bergner; Roza / Rosalia Nebenzahl and Anna Thompson



Zygmunt Grunberg with family



Joseph Nathan Natan Silberfeld, Henryk (Chaim) Silberfeld, Nehemiah (Cheene) Henry Silberfeld, Ernest Silberfeld, Benjamin Silberfeld, Samuel Silberfeld, Salomon Silberfeld  


Maccabi boxing team in Krakow.


Feigel (Francesca) Allerhand, Mojzesz Aaron Maurycy Allerhand



Rabbi Zvi Asher Kahana-Shapira Av Beit Din
Gender: Male
Birth: September 19, 1857
Krakow, Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland
Death: January 19, 1938 



Paula and Irena Branstatter in Krakow cira 1915. submited by their relative Monique Percy


The graduates of the Hebrew Gimnasia of Krakow in 1934 on the roof of their High School.



Class picture from the Hebrew Gimnasia of Krakow


A parade in Krakow in which the students of the Hebrew Highschool (Gimnasia) took part



Created by Eilat Gordin Levitan

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Issues of the Cracow Association Newsletters could be found at :

Association of Cracowians in Israel - News Letters

March 2007 - download (PDF)

April 2007 - download (PDF)

June 2007 - download (PDF)

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January 2011 - download (PDF)

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September - October 2011 - download (PDF)

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A short film about the Ghetto in Krakow was produced by Jan Grabowski. There are sub-titles in Hebrew and in English. 


Shorshim (roots) of Krakow: http://www.shoreshim.org/

Subject: Krakow Jewish Community
From: Marianna <mariannah@epf.pl>
Date: Mon, 29 Oct 2007 17:32:33 +0100
X-Message-Number: 1


I'm happy to inform you that the Jewish Community of Krakow has
finally established its website: http://krakow.jewish.org.pl
It's available both in Polish and English.

The website includes actual information on the Community activities,
a gallery of Jewish sites in Krakow, and tourist information on kosher
hostels and restaurants.

Marianna Hoszowska
Warsaw, Poland

High Synagogue Krakow


Saluting Jewish Krakow


Kupa Synagogue Krakow


Jewish Culture Festival (Krakow, 2007):


Beyond the Pale in Krakow


Kraków Transport List 1940-1941
(6,701 names) <http://www.jewishgen.org/databases/holocaust/0119_Krakow_transports.html>
to search the list: http://www.jewishgen.org/databases/Holocaust/

Schindler Unlocking the Past; you will find an article about the new exhibition in Krakow, at the museum on Lipowa 4 str. The article was written by Nick Hodge and published in July 2010 bulletin of the “Krakow Post”.


From: Ari Goldberger <ari@esqwire.com>
Subject: Montelupich Prison. Jewish mechanics at garage; and Leon Lefkowitz

Goldberg, Montelupich Prison, Leon Lefkowitz

My Dad is the 3rd standing from the left in the below picture. He is 86. Here is another picture taken the same day. My father said an SS Officer shot it. It seems the timing on the pictures is more than just a minute since one picture has a motorcycle (maybe the SS man’s). Maybe this pic shot by someone else. My father also wrote a book:
Prisoner of the Gestapo: How I survived the Holocaust

Adam Goldberger (Author)

My grandfather, Leon Lefkowitz, (mom’s dad) was a well known Cracow artist. His pics and documents and photos are at http://esqwire.com/leon


Holocaust Survivor Testimonies: Deportation from Cracow
Holocaust survivors Shmuel Rotbard, Miriam Akavia and Aliza Avnon
describe the deportation from Cracow, Poland, to the concentration
camps. The video is an excerpt from the film "The Deportation from
Cracow" from the Holocaust History Museum in Yad Vashem.
For more information:
Or in Hebrew: http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/he/holocaust/about/05/deportation.asp

This video is one of many that can be viewed in Yad Vashem's Holocaust
History Museum:




The wedding of Gusta and Aharon, Most of the guests pictured are the daughters of Zvi Hirsh Landesdorfer. Submitted by Asa Hadas ( Zvi Hirsh Landesdorfer's great grandson)

Zvi Hirsch  Landesdorfer on the right
Submitted by his great grandson;  Asa Hadas

Zvi Hirsch  Landesdorfer with his children and grandchildren. Submitted by his great grandson; Asa Hadas.


Zvi Hirsch  Landesdorfer

Birth c 1850

Death 1942
perished in the holocaust

Son of Moshe Aba Landesdorfer and Hela Landesdorfer
Husband of Rebecca Landesdorfer and Shprinza Sabina Landesdorfer
Father of Juda Leib Landesdorfer; Gusta Genendel Schwartz; Bilah Lewkowicz; Eliezer Landesdorfer; Roza Fischgrund; Joseph Landesdorfer; Mire Miriam Alexandrowitz; Beila Landesdorfer; Josef Landesdorfer; Jacob Landesdorfer; Dora Melzer; Chaja Hela Bertram; Aaron Landesdorfer; Fela monderer; Shlomo Laedan; Hyaim Hamek Ladan and Zvia Goldberg « less
Brother of Malka Landesdorfer; Esther Klinger; Beila Shanker and Chaim Landesdorfer