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#eps-7: Born: 24 July 1871 in Frankfurt, Germany Died: 11 Aug 1939 in Dornbusch, Germany
#eps-9: Hedy Epstein is one of two voter-plaintiffs in Alliance for Democracy v. FEC, NVRIâ€s recently filed federal lawsuit seeking FEC enforcement against Ashcroft 2000 and the Spirit of America PAC for
serious campaign finance violations in the 2000 elections. Ms. Epstein is a Holocaust survivor and a
longtime human rights advocate.
She resides in St. Louis, Missouri. You can visit her website www.hedyepstein.com to read more about
her life and work. NVRI recently asked Ms. Epstein why she got involved in this case: go to;
#eps-10: Laura Epstein
#eps-11: Samuel William (Shimon Zev/Velvel) Epstein was born in Grodno Gubernia (Poland-Belarus), approximately 1893, the son of Morris (Zalman Mashe) Epstein, who had emigrated to London, England, when Sam was a boy.
Morris's father was Avraham Eliezer,Â the son ofÂ Zev (Wolf) Â Epstein - a LEVITE (from a Rabbinic Family) from ZHETL (Dyatlovo) in Belarus// ... Paul Epstein was brought up in a Jewish family in Frankfurt where his father was a professor at the Philanthropin Academy. After submitting a thesis on abelian
functions, he received his doctorate in 1895 from the University of Strasbourg. The city was German at this time (and called Strassburg) and it had been since it was annexed by Germany during the Franco-German War of 1870-71. From 1895 to 1918 he remained in Strasbourg, teaching at the Technical School and also at the University where he had been appointed a Privatdozent. During World War I he did military service. At the end of the war in 1918, however, the city of Strasbourg reverted to France, and Epstein, being German, was forced to leave Alsace. He returned to his native city of Frankfurt. Epstein was appointed to a non-tenured post at the university and he lectured in Frankfurt from 1919. Later he was appointed professor at Frankfurt. On 30 January 1933, however, Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of
course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles. All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired. However, there was an exemption clause which exempted non-Aryans who had fought for Germany in World War I.
Epstein certainly qualified under this clause and this allowed him to keep his lecturing post in Frankfurt in 1933.
Decisions at the Nuremberg party congress in the autumn of 1935 made it clear that non-Aryans would no longer be able to keep their posts even if they had
served in World War I. Siegel writes in :-
Epstein voluntarily relinquished
his teaching position before the Nuremberg laws went into effect. As
he explained to me, he had wanted to save the German authorities the
trouble of doing to him what the French had done back in 1918. Epstein
did not attempt to emigrate. He was 64 years old and had he emigrated
he would have lost all his money except 10 Marks. There was no prospect
of a 64 year old obtaining a post. On the Kristallnacht (so called because
of the broken glass in the streets on the following morning), the 9-10
November 1938, 91 Jews were murdered, hundreds were seriously injured,
and thousands were subjected to horrifying experiences. Thousands of
Jewish businesses were burnt down together with over 150 synagogues.
The Gestapo arrested 30,000 well-off Jews and a condition of their release
was that they emigrate. The Gestapo broke into Epstein's house but found
that he was seriously ill and could not be moved. At this point Epstein
must have known that his only chance was to leave Germany. It would
have been posssible for :-
I just found out that Linda Eastman McCartney's father's surname was
One tree I found has Linda's paternal grandfather as Louis EPSTEIN,
Linda Louise EASTMAN
McCartney was born Linda Louise Eastman, the second-eldest of four children, to Jewish-American parents in New York City. She had one brother, John (July 10, 1939) and two sisters, Laura (b. 1947) and Louise Jr. (b. 1950). She grew up in the wealthy Scarsdale area of Westchester County, New York and graduated from Scarsdale High School in 1960. Her father, Lee Eastman, was the son of Jewish-Russian immigrants. He changed his name from Leopold Vail Epstein to Lee Eastman, but was not related to the Eastman Kodak family. He was songwriter Jack Lawrence's attorney, and at his request, Lawrence wrote a song called, "Linda", in honour of the five-year-old, which was recorded by Buddy Clark in 1947. Her mother was Louise Sara Lindner Eastman—heiress to the Lindner Department Store fortune—who died in the crash of American Airlines Flight 1 in Queens, New York, in 1962. McCartney later said that because of her mother's death, she hated travelling in airplanes. McCartney studied for a Fine Art major at the University of Arizona. Her first marriage was to John Melvin See Jr., whom she met at university. They married on June 18, 1962, and their daughter Heather Louise was born on 31 December 1962. They were divorced in June 1965. McCartney later commented that See was a "nice man, a geologist, an Ernest Hemingway type".
McCartney started work as a receptionist for the Town & Country magazine, and was the only unofficial photographer on board the SS Sea Panther yacht on the Hudson River who was allowed to take photographs of The Rolling Stones during a record promotion party. Although she had previously only studied the photography of horses in Arizona at an arts centre with a teacher, Hazel Archer, she was asked to be the house photographer at the Fillmore East concert hall. Groupies who frequented the Fillmore and Max's Kansas City nightclub later called her, "Linda Starfucker". She photographed artists such as Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Bob Dylan, Janis Joplin, Eric Clapton, Simon and Garfunkel, The Who, and The Doors. She photographed Clapton for Rolling Stone magazine, becoming the first woman to have a photo featured on the front cover (May 11, 1968). McCartney and her husband also appeared on the cover of Rolling Stone on January 31, 1974, making her the only person both to have taken a photo for and to have been photographed for the magazine cover. Her photographs were later exhibited in more than 50 galleries internationally, as well as at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. A collection of photographs from that time, Linda McCartney's Sixties: Portrait of an Era, was published in 1993.
[ 15 May 1967, the then Linda Eastman met Paul McCartney at a Georgie Fame concert at the Bag O'Nails club in London. She was in the UK on an assignment to take photographs of "Swinging Sixties" musicians in London. The two later went to the Speakeasy club on Margaret Street to see Procol Harum. They met again four days later at the launch party for Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band at Brian Epstein's house in Belgravia. When Eastman's assignment was completed, she flew back to New York City. In May 1968, they met again in New York, as John Lennon and Paul McCartney were there to announce the formation of Apple Corps. In September of the same year, McCartney phoned her and asked her to fly over to London. They were married six months later at a small civil ceremony (when she was four months pregnant with their daughter Mary) at Marylebone Registry Office on 12 March 1969. She said after the birth of James that four children was enough. She became Lady McCartney when her husband was knighted in 1997. Her brother, entertainment lawyer John Eastman, has represented Paul McCartney since the break-up of The Beatles.
Main article: Wings (band)
Linda made an uncredited vocal contribution to the Beatles' title song of Let It Be in January 1969. After the breakup of the Beatles in 1970, McCartney taught her to play keyboards, and permanently included her in the lineup for his new group Wings. The group garnered several Grammy Awards, becoming one of the most successful bands of the 1970s, but had to endure jibes like, "What do you call a cow with wings? Linda McCartney". She later admitted that the early accusations about her singing out of tune in the early days with Wings were true.
In 1977, a single entitled "Seaside Woman" was released by an obscure band called Suzy and the Red Stripes, on Epic Records in the U.S. In reality, Suzy and the Red Stripes were Wings with Linda McCartney (who also wrote the song) on lead vocals. The song was recorded by Wings in 1972, in response to a lawsuit by ATV (which owned Northern Songs) over Paul McCartney's practice of granting his wife co-writing credit on his songs, which had the effect of transferring a share of the publishing royalties to MPL Communications from ATV. The lawsuit was settled out of court.
McCartney and her husband shared an Oscar nomination for the song "Live and Let Die", which they co-wrote. Linda McCartney's album Wide Prairie, which included "Seaside Woman", was released posthumously in 1998. Paul McCartney worked with the help of the Beatles' engineer, Geoff Emerick, to finish the album. Along with eight other British composers, he contributed to the choral album A Garland for Linda, and dedicated his classical album, Ecce Cor Meum, to his late wife. In January 1999, "The Light Comes From Within" single from the Wide Prairie album was banned by TV and radio stations in the UK. Paul McCartney placed advertisements in English national newspapers asking parents to give "guidance" as to whether their children could be "morally corrupted" by the song lyrics, which included the lines, "You say I'm simple, you say I'm a hick, You're fucking no-one, you stupid dick".
Vegetarianism, activism and lifestyle
McCartney introduced her husband to vegetarianism in 1975, and promoted a vegetarian diet through her cookbooks: Linda McCartney's Home Cooking (1989) Linda's Kitchen and Simple and Inspiring Recipes for Meatless Meals. She explained her change to vegetarianism by saying that she did not "eat anything with a face", and if "slaughterhouses had glass walls the whole world would be vegetarian". In 1991, she introduced a line of frozen vegetarian meals under the Linda McCartney Foods name, which made her wealthy independently of her husband. In 1995, McCartney appeared in animated form with her husband in The Simpsons episode "Lisa the Vegetarian". The "Trash of the Titans" episode was dedicated to her memory. The H. J. Heinz Company acquired Linda McCartney Foods in March 2000, and the Hain Celestial Group bought it in 2007.
McCartney was a strong advocate for animal rights, and lent her support to many organizations like PETA (People For The Ethical Treatment of Animals) as well as The Council For The Protection of Rural England, Friends Of The Earth, and was a patron of the League Against Cruel Sports. Before her death, she narrated a TV advertisement for PETA, in which she said: "Have you ever seen a fish gasping for breath when you take it out of the water? They're saying, 'Thanks a lot for killing me. It feels great, you know.' No! It hurts!" After her death, PETA created the Linda McCartney Memorial Award.
McCartney was arrested in Los Angeles for possession of marijuana in 1975, although all charges were later dropped. In 1984, the McCartneys were arrested in Barbados for possession of marijuana and were fined $100 each. They flew to Heathrow Airport, London, where Linda McCartney was arrested again on charges of possession. She later commented that hard drugs were disgusting, but marijuana "is pretty lightweight".
A photo of Linda McCartney shortly before her death.
McCartney was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1995, and her condition soon grew worse as it spread to her liver. Paul's last words to her were: "You're up on your beautiful Appaloosa stallion. It's a fine spring day. We're riding through the woods. The bluebells are all out, and the sky is clear-blue". Linda McCartney died at age 56 on April 17, 1998, at the McCartney family ranch in Tucson, Arizona. She was cremated in Tucson, and her ashes were scattered at McCartney's farm in Sussex. Paul later suggested that fans remember her by donating to breast cancer research charities that do not support animal testing, "or the best tribute — go veggie". Memorial services were held for her at St. Martin-in-the-Fields in London, which was attended by George Harrison, David Gilmour and Ringo Starr. A memorial service was also held at Riverside Church in Manhattan, two months after her death.
Talking later about the medication used to treat her breast cancer, Paul said: "If a drug has got to be used on humans then legally it has to be finally tested on an animal ... This was difficult for Linda when she was undergoing her treatment." He also claimed that she was unsure if the drugs she took had been tested on animals: "During the treatment, a nice answer is a nice answer and if they (the doctors) say, `It's OK to have this because we didn't test it on animals', you are going to believe them." She left her entire fortune to her husband in a special trust, known as a Qualified Domestic Trust, which allows deferral of estate taxes due on her assets until after his death. He will have access to any royalties from books, records and any financial remuneration for the use of his wife's photographs. He has pledged to continue her line of vegetarian food, and to keep it free from genetically modified organisms.
Wide Prairie, a six-minute cartoon fantasy film by Linda McCartney and director Oscar Grillo, was premièred at the Edinburgh International Film Festival on 19 August 1998. It was shown before the British première of The Horse Whisperer, starring Robert Redford. On April 10, 1999, Paul McCartney performed at the tribute "Concert for Linda" in the Royal Albert Hall, with numerous artists including George Michael, the Pretenders, Elvis Costello and Tom Jones. In January 2000, he announced donations in excess of $2,000,000 for cancer research at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York and the Arizona Cancer Center in Tucson, where Linda received treatment. The centers received $1 million (£625,000) each. The donations, through the Garland Appeal, were made on the condition no animals would be used for testing purposes. In 2000, The Linda McCartney Centre, a cancer clinic, opened at The Royal Liverpool University Hospital. In November 2002, the Linda McCartney Kintyre Memorial Trust opened a memorial garden in Campbeltown — the main town on the Mull of Kintyre — with the dedication of a bronze statue of Linda by sculptor Jane Robbins, commissioned and donated by Paul.
Portrayals on screen
Elizabeth Mitchell and Gary Bakewell played Linda and Paul McCartney in the 2000 TV movie The Linda McCartney Story.. Catherine Strauss had earlier played her (as "Linda Eastman") in the 1985 TV movie John and Yoko: A Love Story. Tamara Blum Cohen appeared as Linda McCartney in a 2007 episode of the TV series Final 24 focused on Keith Moon.
^ a b Gruber, Stephen C.. "Qualified Domestic Trust (QDT) Living Trusts for Non-Citizens". Stephen C. Gruber, Attorney at Law. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
Fields, Danny (2001). Linda McCartney. Time Warner (Paperbacks). ISBN 0-7515-2985-0.
The Path of the Vegetarian by Linda McCartney
NAME McCartney, Linda
Epstein was born into a Jewish family in Rodney Street, Liverpool, England. Epstein's grandfather, Isaac Epstein, was from Hodan, Lithuania (which was part of Russia at that time) and arrived in England in the 1890s, at the age of eighteen. His grandmother, Dinah, was the daughter of Joseph and Esther Hyman, who emigirated (from either Poland or Russia) to England (circa 1870) with their eldest son, Jacob. The Hymans had six more children http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brian_Epstein.
Isaac Epstein married Dinah Hyman in Manchester, in 1900. In 1901, Isaac and Dinah were living at 80 Walton Road, Liverpool, with Isaac's sister, Rachael Epstein, above the furniture dealership he had recently founded. Dinah and Isaac's third son was Harry Epstein; the father of Brian Epstein. After Harry and his brother Leslie had joined the family firm, Isaac Epstein founded "I. Epstein and Sons", and enlarged his furniture business by taking over adjacent shops (62/72 Walton Road) to sell a varied range of other goods, such as musical instruments and household appliances. They called the expanding business NEMS (North End Music Stores) which offered lenient credit terms, and from which McCartney's father once bought a piano.
Epstein's mother was formally named Malka (although always known by her family as Queenie—Malka translating as "queen" in Hebrew) and was a member of the Hyman furniture family, which owned the successful Sheffield Veneering Company. Harry and Queenie also had another son, Clive, who was born 22 months after Epstein's birth. During WWII the Epsteins moved to Southport to escape The Blitz—where two schools expelled Epstein for laziness and poor performance—but returned to Liverpool in 1945. The Epsteins lived at 197 Queens Drive, Childwall, in Liverpool, and stayed there for 30 years. After his parents had moved him from one boarding school to another, the 14-year-old Epstein spent two years at Wrekin College, in Shropshire. Shortly before his sixteenth birthday in 1950, he sent a long letter to his father, explaining that he wanted to become a dress designer, but Harry Epstein was adamantly opposed to this idea, and his son finally had to "report for duty" at the family's furniture shop. On a £5 per week wage, selling furniture was not what Epstein wanted, but he was congratulated by his family on the first day of work after selling a £12 dining room table to a woman who originally wanted to buy a mirror.
In December 1951, Epstein was drafted—as a clerk—into the Royal Army Service Corps, and was posted to the Albany Street Barracks near Regent's Park, in London, where he was often reprimanded for not picking up his army pay. After returning to Liverpool Epstein was put in charge of Clarendon Furnishing shop in Hoylake, and in 1955, at the age of twenty-one, was made a director of NEMS. In September of 1956, he took a trip to London to meet a friend, but after being there for only one day, he was robbed of his passport, birth certificate, chequebook, wristwatch, and all the money he had on him. As he did not want his parents to find out, he worked as department store clerk until he had earned enough money to buy a train ticket back to Liverpool. Back in Liverpool, he confessed "everything" (his homosexuality) to a psychiatrist—a friend of the Epstein family—who suggested to Harry Epstein that his son should leave Liverpool as soon as possible. During the sessions Epstein revealed his ambition of becoming an actor, so his parents allowed him go to London to study. Epstein attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) in London. His RADA classmates included actors Susannah York, Albert Finney and Peter O'Toole, but Epstein dropped out after the third term. Back in Liverpool, Harry Epstein put his son in charge of the record department of the newly-opened NEMS music store on Great Charlotte Street. Epstein worked "day and night" at the store to make it a success, and it became one of the biggest musical retail outlets in the North of England. The Epsteins opened a second store at 12-14 Whitechapel, and Epstein was put in charge of the entire operation. Epstein often walked across the road to the Lewis's department store (which also had a music section) where Peter Brown was employed. He watched Brown's sales technique and was impressed enough to lure Brown to work for NEMS with the offer of a higher salary and a commission on sales. On 3 August 1961, Epstein started a regular music column in the Mersey Beat magazine, called, 'Record Releases, by Brian Epstein of NEMS'.
 The Beatles
The Beatles' name was supposedly first noticed by Epstein in issues of Mersey Beat, and on numerous posters around Liverpool, before asking Bill Harry who they were, as Harry had previously convinced Epstein to sell the Mersey Beat magazine at NEMS). (The Beatles were featured on the front page of Mersey Beat's second issue). The Beatles had recorded the 'My Bonnie' single with Tony Sheridan in Germany, and some months after its release Epstein asked Alistair Taylor about it in NEMS. Epstein's version of the story was that a customer, Raymond Jones, walked into the NEMS shop and asked Epstein for the "My Bonnie" single, which made Epstein curious about the group.
The Beatles were due to perform a lunchtime concert in the Cavern Club (a dark, damp, and dirty basement) on 9 November 1961, not far from the NEMS store. Epstein asked Bill Harry to arrange for Epstein and his assistant Taylor to watch The Beatles perform, and Epstein and Taylor were allowed into the club without queuing, with a welcome message being announced over the club's public-address system by Bob Wooler, who was the resident DJ. Epstein later talked about the performance:
After the performance, Epstein and Taylor went into the dressing room—which was "as big as a broom cupboard"—to talk to them. The Beatles immediately recognised Epstein—as they were regular customers at NEMS—but before Epstein could congratulate them on their performance, George Harrison said, "And what brings Mr. Epstein here?"
The Beatles played at the Cavern over the next three weeks, and Epstein was always there to watch them. Epstein contacted their previous manager, Allan Williams, to confirm that Williams no longer had any ties to them, but Williams advised Epstein "not to touch them with a barge pole". In a meeting with the group at NEMS on 10 December 1961, he proposed the idea of managing them. The Beatles signed a five-year contract with Epstein on 24 January 1962. Epstein had told his mother and father that managing The Beatles was only a part-time occupation, and would never interfere with the family business.
Although Epstein had had no prior experience of artist management, he had a strong influence on their early dress-code and attitude on stage. When Epstein discovered the band, they wore blue jeans and leather jackets, performing at rowdy rock 'n' roll shows where they would stop and start songs when they felt like it, or when an audience member requested a certain song. Epstein encouraged them to wear suits and ties, insisted that they stop swearing, smoking, drinking or eating onstage, and also suggested the famous synchronised bow at the end of their performances. McCartney was the first to agree with Epstein's ideas, believing it was—in part—due to Epstein's RADA training. Lennon was against the idea of suits and ties, but later said, "Yeah, man, all right, I'll wear a suit. I'll wear a bloody balloon if somebody's going to pay me".
Epstein made numerous trips to London to visit record companies with the hope of securing a record contract, but was rejected by many, including Columbia, Pye, Philips, Oriole, and most famously, Decca [see The Decca audition]. The Beatles later found out that Epstein had paid Decca producer Tony Meehan (ex-drummer of the Shadows) to produce the studio recordings. While Epstein was negotiating with Decca, he also approached EMI marketing executive Ron White, who later contacted EMI producers Norrie Paramor, Walter Ridley, and Norman Newell, but they all declined to record the group. White could not contact EMI's fourth staff producer (Martin) as he was on holiday.
On 8 February 1962, Epstein visited a HMV store in Oxford Street, London, to have the Decca audition tape transferred to disc. A HMV technician named Jim Foy liked the recordings, and suggested that Epstein should contact Parlophone's George Martin. The Beatles were signed by EMI's small Parlophone label after the group had been rejected by almost every other British record company, and without Martin ever having seen them play live. Martin later explained that Epstein's enthusiasm and conviction that one day The Beatles would become internationally famous convinced him to sign them.
Martin scheduled an audition—at Abbey Road Studios—which convinced Martin that they were good enough, but with one exception: He felt the recording would be better served by an experienced session drummer in place of Pete Best. When the news came that Martin wanted to replace Best on their recordings with a session drummer, John Lennon, McCartney and Harrison asked Epstein to fire Best from the band. Epstein agonised about the decision, and asked Bob Wooler if it was a good idea, to which Wooler replied that Best was very popular with the fans and they wouldn't like it at all. Ringo Starr took his place, as Starr had previously played with Rory Storm and the Hurricanes, and had previously stepped in to drum with them when Best was ill or unable to play.
The Beatles toured the Philippines in July 1966, but Epstein unintentionally snubbed the nation's first lady, Imelda Marcos, when presented with an invitation to a breakfast party. Epstein politely declined on behalf of the group, as it had been their policy never to accept such official invitations. The Beatles and their entourage were ejected from their hotel the same day and were given a police escort to the airport. They boarded the plane to fly home, but Epstein and Mal Evans were ordered off, with both believing they would not be allowed back on the plane. Epstein was forced to give back most of the money that they had earned in the Philippines before being allowed back on the plane.
After Candlestick Park
The Beatles' hectic schedule of touring, television, and film work between 1963-65 kept Epstein very busy. The Beatles' last live concert was at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California on 29 August 1966, and Epstein's management duties changed to reflect the changing nature of their career. He wanted them to continue touring, however, but they adamantly refused. The Beatles started to pay less attention to Epstein's advice on many issues after they stopped touring, such as the legally risky cover art of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Epstein later brought Robert Stigwood into the NEMS organisation, and wanted to sell the control of NEMS to him, but didn't tell any of the group about his decision.
Before Epstein's death, McCartney had been taking a much more active interest in NEMS' finances, and the group was becoming aware that some artists with more ruthless managers—such as the Rolling Stones under Allen Klein—claimed to be receiving more commercially advantageous terms. After Epstein's death, Stigwood wanted to take over the management of NEMS—believing that he was the "natural successor"—but Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Starr all vehemently opposed him, with Lennon saying, "We don't know you. Why would we do this?"
 Business dealings
McCartney admitted that they signed all the contracts Epstein presented to them without reading them first, but when Lennon was asked for a comment about Epstein's business dealings after Epstein's death, he said, "Well, he was alright. I've found out since, of course, that he wasn't quite as honest to us as he made out"—although many other interviews with Lennon report him as being very loyal to Epstein, and even saying, "We had complete faith in him when he was running us. To us, he was the expert".
The Beatles all signed Epstein's first management contract, but Epstein did not sign it himself, thereby giving himself the option of withdrawing at any time, although he told his Taylor the opposite by saying, "Well, if they ever want to tear it up, they can hold me but I can't hold them". The contract was not legally binding on McCartney and Harrison in any case, as they were both still minors (the age of majority at that time was 21) and lacked the legal capacity to sign a binding contract. The contract stated that Epstein would receive a management commission of 25 percent of their gross income after a certain threshold had been reached. The Beatles argued for a smaller percentage, but Epstein pointed out that he had been paying their expenses for months, without receiving anything in return. Epstein once offered the individual Beatles a fixed wage of £50-a-week for life, instead of receiving money from record sales. Harrison commented that he was earning £25 a week at the time, which was more than the £10 a week his father was earning, but the group as a whole declined Epstein's offer, as they thought that they were worth much more than £50-a-week. After the release of Love Me Do in 1962, Epstein signed a second (and legally binding) contract.
The Beatles' recording contract that EMI offered Epstein gave them one penny for each record sold, which was split amongst the four members, meaning one farthing per group member. The royalty rate was further reduced for singles sold outside the UK, on which the group received half of one penny (again split between the whole band) per single. Martin said later that EMI had "nothing to lose" by signing a contract with them.
The Beatles' concerts were booked by Epstein himself, and he also presented groups managed by NEMS as an opening act, thereby making money for NEMS as the promoter, booking agent, and Manager for all the concerts. The Beatles were constantly in demand by concert promoters, and Epstein took advantage of the situation to avoid paying some taxes by accepting "hidden" fees on the night of a performance, which he always kept in a brown paper bag. Epstein also successfully managed Gerry & the Pacemakers, Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas (who had three hits with Lennon-McCartney songs) the Fourmost (their first two singles were written by Lennon) the Cyrkle (Epstein's first American group) and Cilla Black (who was Epstein's only female artist) as well as other artists.
During the first Beatles' flight to America Epstein was offered numerous samples of products by merchandisers—who required a licence from Epstein to be allowed to sell them—including clocks, pens, plastic wigs, bracelets, and games, but Epstein rejected all of them. David Jacobs, the lawyer for NEMS, had already given away some exclusive merchandising rights to Nicky Byrne in England, which later turned out to be a financial mistake as Epstein had asked for a percentage that was far below the norm at the time. The Beatles were ensconced in the Plaza hotel in New York, and Epstein was further besieged by calls and visits from merchandisers, promoters, television commentators, and hustlers—all demanding to talk to him. Mindful of the number of records the group were selling in America, Capitol records sent a well-spoken Yorkshire girl, Wendy Hanson, to the Plaza hotel to act as Epstein's secretary, and to filter his calls. Hanson later worked solely with Epstein in his Albemarle Street office, which was separate from the NEMS office.
Epstein asked James Trevor Isherwood (a Chartered Accountant) to set up a company to collect Lennon and McCartney's PRS payments—called Lenmac—which he did on 12 May 1964. When he first visited Epstein's office, Isherwood was surprised to learn that Epstein took 25% of the gross income, and not what he thought was the usual 10% that other managers received at that time. All of Epstein's expenses were also deducted from any of his artists gross income, which meant office rental, staff wages, travel, telephone costs, and entertaining expenses. Before his death, Epstein knew that the renegotiation of his management contract (up for renewal on 30 September 1967) would reduce his management fee from 25 per cent to 10 per cent, and would also mean a larger drop in NEMS income, as Beatles' concert fees had been taken out of the equation.
The Beatles entered into a publishing agreement with Dick James Music (DJM) who set up a company called Northern Songs. Epstein agreed that James should receive 25 per cent of the shares, and Charles Silver—his financial partner and accountant—should also receive 25 per cent. Lennon and McCartney received 20 per cent each, and Epstein held the remaining 10 per cent. The Beatles PRS income increased rapidly, and Epstein asked Isherwood to work out a way of avoiding the tax that Lennon and McCartney would have to pay. Isherwood suggested a Stock-market flotation for Northern Songs, and further advised Epstein that Lennon and McCartney should move to houses near his [Isherwood's] in Esher during the flotation, which Lennon, Harrison, and Starr did—with only Epstein and McCartney remaining in London.
After moving to London Epstein rented an office in Monmouth Street—close to Seven Dials—in 1965, and later leased the Saville Theatre on Shaftesbury Avenue. He promoted new works by writers such as Arnold Wesker in productions that occasionally fell afoul of the Lord Chamberlain by including "obscene" content or nudity. Epstein changed the programme to that of a music venue in 1966, presenting various U.S. acts. Epstein was asked to appear on several music-based TV programmes in Britain after the success of The Beatles, and also hosted a regular part of the US TV show Hullabaloo, by filming his appearances in the UK.
 Personal life
Throughout Epstein's life he was known to be kind and caring to his family, friends of his family, and business colleagues. When Lennon married Cynthia Powell, on 23 August 1962, Epstein attended the wedding as the "best man" and paid for their celebration lunch afterwards. During Cynthia's pregnancy Epstein paid for a private room in a hospital and offered the Lennons the sole use of his flat on Faulkner Street when they needed somewhere to live. He also agreed to be the godfather to Julian Lennon, John and Cynthia's son.
Epstein's strongest relationship with a woman was with singer Alma Cogan, who was also Jewish and a part of the old-fashioned world of show business. Epstein always bought her presents when he was abroad, and even took her to Liverpool to meet his parents. Despite Epstein's preference for male company, some of his friends believed they would eventually get married. Cogan died of ovarian cancer on 26 October 1966 at age 34.
In October 1964, Epstein's autobiography, A Cellarful of Noise, was published in the UK and later in the U.S. It was co-written by journalist Derek Taylor, who had served as Epstein's assistant that year, then later as the publicist for NEMS from 1968-1970. (Lennon reportedly once quipped that the memoir should have been titled A Cellarful of Boys). Male homosexual relations were illegal throughout the UK until September 1967 (only one month after Epstein's death) when gay male sexuality was legalised in England and Wales (remaining illegal in Scotland and Northern Ireland until 1980 and 1982, respectively).
A few weeks before his own death, Epstein attended a traditional shiva in Liverpool after his father passed away, having just come out of the Priory clinic where he had been trying to cure his acute insomnia and his addiction to amphetamines. Epstein's last visit to a Beatles' recording session was on 23 August 1967, at the Chappell Recording Studios on Maddox street, London.
On Thursday 24 August, Epstein asked Brown and Geoffrey Ellis down to Kingsley Hall (44.5 miles from his home in Chapel Street) which was Epstein's country home in Uckfield, Sussex, for the Bank Holiday weekend. After they got there, Epstein decided to drive back to London by himself because an expected group of rent boys he had invited failed to arrive. Epstein phoned Brown the next day at 5 o'clock in the afternoon from his Chapel Street house in London. Brown thought that Epstein sounded "very groggy", and suggested that Epstein take a train back down to Kingsley Hall instead of driving under the influence of Tuinals. Epstein replied that he would eat something, read his mail and watch Juke Box Jury before phoning Brown to tell him which train to meet. He never called again.
Epstein died of a drug overdose on 27 August 1967. The Beatles were in Bangor at the time, having a meeting with the Indian guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, and Epstein had previously agreed to travel to Bangor after the August Bank Holiday. A concert by Jimi Hendrix at the Saville Theatre (which Epstein leased) was cancelled out of respect on the same day that Epstein died. At the statutory inquest, his death was officially ruled accidental, and was probably caused by a gradual buildup of Carbitral in his system, mixed with alcohol. It was revealed that he had taken six Carbitral pills in order to sleep, which was probably usual for Epstein, but meant that his tolerance was very close to becoming lethal.
Peter Brown claimed in his memoir, The Love You Make: An Insider's Story of The Beatles, that he had once found a suicide note written by Epstein and spoke with him directly about it. According to Brown, the note read in part, "This is all too much and I can't take it anymore." A short will and testament followed, in which Epstein left his house and money to his mother and his brother (Brown himself was a small beneficiary). When confronted with the note, Epstein told Brown that he was grateful Brown had not told anyone about it, and told him that he was sorry he had made Brown worry. He explained that he had simply had taken one pill too many and that he did not intend to overdose and promised to be more careful from then on. Brown later wrote that he wondered if he was really doing Epstein a favour by not showing the note to Epstein's doctor, Norman Cowan, who would have stopped prescribing drugs for Epstein.
The Beatles did not attend Epstein's funeral, wishing to give his family privacy by not attracting the media and fans.
Epstein was overlooked when Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Starr were honoured with the MBE in 1965 (Harrison once said that the MBE stood for "Mister Brian Epstein"). The Beatles were among the earliest entrants into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, but Epstein is not in the Hall's "Non-Performer's Section". Martin Lewis—previously Taylor's assistant—created "The Official Brian Epstein Website", which includes a petition that Epstein be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Lewis also organized the 1998 re-publication (in the U.S.) of Epstein's 1964 autobiography, A Cellarful of Noise. McCartney summarised the importance of Epstein when he was interviewed, in 1997, for a BBC documentary about Epstein by stating: "If anyone was the Fifth Beatle, it was Brian." In his 1970 Rolling Stone interview, John Lennon commented that Epstein's death marked the beginning of the end for the group: "I knew that we were in trouble then ... I thought, We've fuckin' had it now". 30 years after Epstein's death, McCartney said, "Brian would really be happy to hear how much we loved him."
1. ^ a b Spitz 2005 pp258-259
Looking for relatives of WILENSKI or WILENSKY ( changed to WILSON in the U.S) originating in
The WILSONs arrived in the United States from Kasan (Kozyany, Belarus) and
Moses EPSTEINs manifest indicates that his last residence was Babrusyk
According to my ggm's death certificate, her parent's names
If any of you have a Moses EPSTEIN from Belarus in your tree, please let meknow and we can compare notes.