Kovno Home Page
Kovno Stories and Links
Levitan family of Kovno
Memoir: The Holocaust Recalled
First World War.com - Memoirs & Diaries - The Fall of Kovno
The Jews of Kovno
The story of Avraham Tory and his Kovno Ghetto diary
From Here To Kovno
Emma Goldman
Nosson Zvi Finkel
The Life of Simcha Frumkin
Kovno  "Kinder Hois" (orphanage)
Rav Yitzchak Elchanan Spektor of Kovna
Visas for life: UNEXPECTED RESCUE, 1940-1941
HaRav Mordechai Zuckerman, zt"l
Rabbi Avrahom Grodzensky
How I Survived the Kovno Ghetto
Rabbi Ephraim Oshry
Reb Shraga Frank and his wife, Rivka
Elul in Slabodka: From the Diary of Rabbi Avrohom Eliyahu Kaplan zt"l
Rabbi Yosef Gavriel Bechhofer
Shulamit Rabinovitch
Rabbi Yitzchok Eizek Sher
HaRav Elizer Menachem Mann Shach (1895- 2001)
Rabbi Chaim Leib Shmulevitz: by Eliahu Meir Klugman
Rav Meir Halevi Chodosh, ZT"L
The Kovno Ghetto Orchestra (1943-1944)
Rabbi Yechezkel Sarna
Rav Moshe Mordechai Epstein by D. Sofer
Rabbi Tobias Geffen
Zippora-Nehama-Safira: A Family Odyssey By Yvette Nahmia-Messinas
In Slobodker Yeshiva by Falk Zolf
Kovno looms over Slobodka by Falk Zolf
The Song is Interrupted by Falk Zolf
The World in Flames by Falk Zolf
The Kravetz Family
With a Rifle in My Hand and Eretz Yisrael in My Heart
The Musical family Stupel/ Hofmekler
Raja Schiff Shlom-nee Berkman
Dr. Moshe Langman
Testimony of Zvi - Hirsch Griliches
Testimony of Meri Michelson
Moisei Kopelman, former police chief of the Kovno ghetto
Fania Brantsovskaya
Prof. Uriel Leviatan - Biography in Hebrew
An Early Childhood Molded by the Holocaust
The Shulman Family of the Slabodka Yeshiva
Emmanuel Levinas (1906-1995)
The Story of Yehuda Feigin
Rabbi Avraham Dovber Shapira, son of Zalman Sender Kahana Shapira
Prof. Dov Levin - Chronological List of Publications & Synopses: 1959 -2005
Elchanan Elkes
Hope and Honor
The Life of Nina Finkelstein, a Survivor of Ghetto Kovno
The Story of Albert Beder
Luba Kadison and The Vilna Troupe (a.k.a. Vilner Troupe)
Sol Stein
Ella Silber
Arthur Pais
Nessy Marks
Hermann Minkowski
Zipora Pokempner
Benny Goodman
Aharon Barak
Ben Shehan
Israel Isidor Elyashev
Ludvic Lazarus (Ludwik Lejzer, Ludwik Łazarz) Zamenhof
Miriam Ben-Porat
Rabbi Yechezkel Sarna (1890 - 1969)
In the Anti-Nazi Underground of the Kovno Ghetto
The Craving for Resistance and its Realization
By: Prof. Dov Levin, Jerusalem 2005
In Those Days by Herzl Ben-Yehuda
Marcia Spies
Back to the River
Sam Schalkowsky (Shmuel Shalkovsky)
Avrom Akselrod
Aharon Amir (nee Lipec)
The 131 Boys from Kovno
Yehezkel Pularevich, Nachum Maryash, Shmariyahu Pustapetsky and Abraham Rohman,
Zionists from Kovno
Moshe Baram
Lea Goldberg (1911-1970)
The Jews of Kovno
Lithuanian Hypocrisy
The Story of Ephraim Gruzin
Lina Beresin of Kovno
The Music of Partisans of Vilna
Music in the Kovno Ghetto and Lithuania
Ziwa Alexander Katz, Holocaust survivor
The Holocaust in Lithuania, and Its Obfuscation, in Lithuanian Sources
Father Bronius Paukstys and his brother Juozas
Rabbi Eliezer Simcha Rabinowitz
Moshe Arnes
Major General Sidney Shachnow
Dr. Israel Isidor Elyashev
Dr. Joel Brotzkos
Tzemach Feldstein
Instead of Truth about the Holocaust – Myths about Saving Jews
Shmuel Yitzchak Hillman
"Mi'yarkete Tsafon" ("From the Ends of the Earth") - memoirs of Gitta Langleben-Klibansky
Echoes from a silent past
Eyewitness Meyshke Preys (Misha Preisas): Kovno (Kaunas), 23 June 1941
Tzemach Ben Zvi Feldstein
Ben Zion Black of Kovno
Shalom (Sholik) Kaplan (later Eilati)
The Brutskus/Bruckus Family
Bronislava Krištopavi?ien? Righteous Among the Nations
Meir Tobianski
Boris Schatz (1866–1932)
Julius Berman Remembers Uri Chanoch
The Cohen Family
The Chanoch Family
Click on Photos to Enlarge
ksl-#1: German troops advance towards Kovno. The sign in the photograph reads, Kaunas (Kovno), 98 kilometers.Credit: Lithuanian Photographic and Video Archives
click to read the Introduction http://www.ushmm.org/kovno/intro/intro.htm
ksl-#2: Smoke from German shelling billows over the city of Kovno, June 22-25, 1941. Credit: George Kadish, photographer, Beit Hatefutsoth, Israel
click to read the story of the Invasion http://www.ushmm.org/kovno/invade/invade.htm


Order #1" as printed in the Lithuanian Activist Front newspaper I
Laisve [To freedom], July 28, 1941. Credit: Lithuanian Central State
Archives, Vilnius
Order No. 1
1. The Jewish population is not allowed to walk on the sidewalk. Jews
are to walk single file on the right side of the street.
2. The Jewish population is not allowed walk on the promenades and are
not allowed in any public parks. Likewise, the Jewish population is
not allowed to sit on public benches.
3. The Jewish population is not allowed to use any public
transportation such as taxis, coaches, buses, boats, and similar
vehicles of transportation. The proprietors and owners of all public
vehicles of transportation must post a visible notice on the vehicle
stating: "Jews Not Permitted."
4. Any violations of these orders will be severely punished.
5. These orders are to be enforced as of today. SA-Colonel Hans
Cramer, City Commissioner

ksl-#4: Moving into the Kovno ghetto. Credit: George Kadish, photographer, George Kadish, Florida
ksl-#5: Moving into the Kovno ghetto. Credit: George Kadish, photographer, Beth Hatefutsoth, Tel Aviv, Israel
ksl-#6: Carts loaded with the possessions of Kovno's Jews head towards the bridge to Slobodka while empty carts return to the city, July-August, 1941. Credit: Avraham and Pnina Tory, Israel
to read about it go to;
ksl-#7: The Jewish Council. Chairman Elkes is seated third from left, and Vice-Chairman Leib Garfunkel is to his far right.Credit: Avraham and Pnina Tory, Israel. Photograph by George Kadish, Beth Hatefutsoth, Israel
Inside the Ghetto -- Jewish Council to read about it click;
ksl-#8: Jewish laborers at the Aleksotas airfield. Credit:YIVO
ksl-#9: The shoe-making workshop. Credit: Abrahm and Pnina Tory, Israel
ksl-#10: Girls in the ghetto sewing workshop. Credit:Kadish/JK
Inside the Ghetto -- Labor to read about it go to;
ksl-#11:Final Days
On October 26, 1943, the SS deported 2,709 persons from the ghetto. Those deemed fit for work were sent to harsh labor camps in northern Estonia, while children and the elderly were deported to Auschwitz. Few survived.Credit: George Kadish, Florida


Kovno ghetto Jews during the Estonian Deportations, October 1943. Credit: George Kadish, Florida


The ruins of Kovno Ghetto.Credit: George Kadish, photographer


George Kadish, lorida Esther Lurie, Deportation to a Labor Camp
pen and ink, 1943.Credit: Esther Lurie, Israel


Kovno ghetto in flames.Credit: George Kadish, photographer; Beth Hatefutsoth, Israel


Final muster of the Jewish Police before they were taken to Fort IX.Credit: George kadish, photographer, Beth Hatefutsoth, Israel
In an effort to obtain information about the ghetto's underground and about the locations of hidden bunkers, the Gestapo arrested and tortured some 130 Jewish policemen at Fort IX. 36 men are killed after refusing to cooperate, including Police Chief Moshe Levin and his assistants, Joshua Greenberg and Yehuda Zupowitz.
For the rest go to;


Mass Murder Einsatzgruppe member kills a Jewish woman and her child near Ivangorod, Ukraine. 1942. Credit: Jerzy Tomaszewski, Poland
Mobile killing units (Einsatzgruppen) followed the German army during its invasion of the Baltics and the western Soviet Union, first killing Jewish men, Soviet political commissars, and others considered racially or politically dispensable. Months after the invasion, Mobile killing units turned to the execution of women and children. Open air killings continued in areas of eastern Europe during 1942 and by the spring of 1943, Einstagruppen units A-D had killed over million persons. ....
For the rest go to;


The story ( in Hebrew) of Aharon Barak, Ph.D. who escaped from the
Kovno ghetto and lived with a non Jewish family. He is the president
of the Superior court in Israel;


Yaakov Shalom Svirski
Jakob Svirsky was born in Kowna, Lithuania in 1920 to Zalman and
Khaia Rivka. He was a student in the university and single. Prior to
WWII he lived in Kowna, Lithuania. During the war was in Kowna,
Lithuania. Jakob perished in Kowna, Lithuania on his birthday of 21 in
August of 1941. This information is based on a Page of Testimony
submitted on 03/10/1956 by his sister Dvora
for more details ( in Hebrew) go to Link

ksl-#20:The story of Uri and Dani Chanoch ( in Hebrew)


ksl-#21:Kovno Ghetto DiaryWritten by: Dmitri Gelpernus

Published in Moscow, 1948


Story of Yerachmiel Siniuk and Yitzchak Fein who were saved by the Urbanas Family



This is the 4th grade of the Jewish elementary school where I studied. I am in the center, 2nd row, my friend Zandel is beside me. The 2nd on the left in the 2nd row is Tanur, Soloveichik is beside her, unfortunately, I don't remember their first names. I don't remember any other names. The photo was taken in Kaunas in 1939. 
I went to the preparatory class at the gymnasium where my brother Azriel also studied. Jews constituted about 30% of the total population of Kaunas, and there were several Jewish schools there: a Yiddish Jewish school, the technical Jewish gymnasium, the humanitarian gymnasium and a religious school. In my gymnasium the subjects were taught in Hebrew. Soon I started talking to my parents and my brother in Hebrew. I had Jewish friends. One of them, Zandel, was my classmate and so were the girls Tanur and Soloveichik. These were their last names; unfortunately, I don't remember their first names. Regretfully, our communication didn't last long. Zandel and Tanur perished during the occupation, and Soloveichik and her family were deported to Siberia. I don't know what happened to her. I also played with other children of different nationalities, and we got along very well. 
There were many Jewish organizations in Kaunas. I liked performances of the Jewish theater where we went with my class. I liked music and liked listening to the records my father played on the record player. I started learning to play the piano, when I was about five years old. We had a piano delivered from Germany. I didn't like playing it but preferred playing with my friends and Lev. I played table tennis for some time. There were Jewish organizations in Lithuania and in Kaunas. I didn't like Betar members, who I thought were too aggressive. Maccabi and Hashomer Hatzair were closer to me. There was another organization in Kaunas, which collected money to purchase land in Palestine, and for the construction of kibbutz communities and establishment of the Jewish state. There was a nice money box, where Mama and Papa always dropped change, in our living room. Every week a representative of this organization visited us. We opened the 'cannon' and he collected the money. 
Tobijas Jafetas

AFTER WW II: Teacher of physics, mathematics